Long-term land-use changes and extinction of specialised butterflies

Published on Sep 1, 2008in Insect Conservation and Diversity 2.09
· DOI :10.1111/j.1752-4598.2008.00027.x
Sven G. Nilsson37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Lund University),
Markus Franzén16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Lund University),
Emma Jönsson1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract
1. Land-use change in 450 ha in southern Sweden between 1814 and 2004 was recorded. Butterflies and burnet moths were surveyed in 1904–1913 and 2001–2005. 2. We explore if local extinctions were related to land-use changes and species attributes. 3. Land use changed drastically over the 190-year period, and the largest relative change occurred for hay meadows with late harvest, which decreased from 28% to 0%. The area changed from grasslands and grazed forests to being dominated by timber forests. Previous open grazed mixed woodlands changed to spruce plantations with clear-cuts. 4. Of the 48 resident butterfly and burnet moths found a century ago, 44% have become extinct. The extinct Aporia crataegi, Colias palaeno, and Leptidea sinapis were abundant 100 years ago and had their highest densities in flower-rich glades in forest, a habitat which no longer exists. 5. The butterfly extinctions could be predicted from species-specific attributes as a short flight length period (P < 0.02), narrow habitat breadth (P < 0.02), small distribution area in Europe (P = 0.033) and possibly larvae food plant nitrogen class (P < 0.06). In a multiple logistic regression, the flight length period was the only significant variable because the independent variables were intercorrelated. 6. We conclude that the most important factor explaining the high extinction rate is that flower-rich habitats have disappeared from both woodlands as well as from open farmlands. The most sensitive species are specialised species with a short summer flight which have gone extinct. Only the most unspecialised species still persist in the current landscape. (Less)
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  • Citations (50)
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References52
Published on Mar 1, 1982in Plant Ecology 1.76
J. H. Willems1
Estimated H-index: 1
A survey is given of the floristic composition and geographical distribution of limestone grasslands assigned to the Mesobromion ereeti, in Western Europe.
66 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2001in Landscape Ecology 3.83
Sara A.O. Cousins19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Stockholm University)
This paper explores the possibility of using non-geometric cadastral maps from the 17th and 18th century together with aerial photographs from 1945 and 1981 to analyse land-cover change in south-east Sweden. Habitats rich in plant species in the European rural landscape seem to be correlated with a long continuity of management. Accurate spatial data from historical data sources are fundamental to understand patterns of vegetation and biodiversity in the present-day landscape. However, tradition...
178 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2002in Entomologisk tidskrift
Sven G. Nilsson37
Estimated H-index: 37
I here propose a modification of the English butterfly census method (Pollard 1977) for studies of large areas with a relatively low density of butterflies. The transect line should not be more than 10 m from any point in open terrain and open forests, but only 5 m from sunny edges and patches with a high density of flowers. The transect line is adjusted between visits to most intensively cover sites with the highest density of flowers. However, between years the transect lines should be the sam...
6 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift
Sven G. Nilsson37
Estimated H-index: 37
The formerly grazed forest (utmark) was the dominant land use on most farms in southern Sweden until about 100 years ago. Here I describe the changed structure and tree species composition over time of the utmark on three farms owned by the church in the central part of Stenbrohult. In this area Carl Linnaeus spent his first 20 summers until 1728. The study is based on old forest management plans, other old documents, published and unpublished pollen analyses from 3 small bogs, tree ages on a cl...
4 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2004in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift
Sven G. Nilsson37
Estimated H-index: 37
,
Ingvar N. Nilsson13
Estimated H-index: 13
We review the history of floristic studies of the parish of Stenbrohult, southern Sweden, where Carl Linnaeus was born in 1707 and spent his summers until 1728. Unfortunately, Carl Linnaeus never made a list of the wild vascular plants at his birthplace, although he mentioned at least 64 species from the parish of Stenbrohult in various manuscripts and books. However, he said that Stenbrohult was “a queen among the sisters” and had “rare and peculiar herbs, which at other places in Sweden are ra...
6 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2004in Entomologica Fennica 0.26
Markus Franzén16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Lund University),
Thomas Ranius34
Estimated H-index: 34
Burnets were surveyed in 100 semi-natural pastures in the province of Ostergotland, southeastern Sweden. We analysed the presence/absence of burnets in relation to habitat characteristics, and species richness of butterflies and plants. Five species were found (Adscita statices, Zygaena osterodensis, Z. viciae,Z. filipendulaeandZ. lonicerae), all occurring in 33%–36% of the localities.Amongthese,fourarenationally red-listed.Morespecieswerefoundon(1) large semi-natural pastures, compared with sma...
11 Citations
Published on Sep 28, 2006in Journal of Applied Ecology 5.74
Johan Wretenberg5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences),
Åke Lindström39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Lund University)
+ 2 AuthorsTomas Pärt37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
Studies, mainly from the UK, show that many farmland birds have declined as a result of recent agricultural intensification. We tested this idea by analysing farmland bird population trends in Sweden, a country displaying less dramatic agricultural changes and less intensive agriculture. Specifically we investigated whether (i) farmland specialists have declined more than generalists, (ii) population declines in Sweden are less marked than in England and (iii) Swedish population trends are assoc...
114 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 1998in Journal of Ecology 5.17
Roland Bobbink35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
M. Hornung21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
J.G.M. Roelofs17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
Summary The effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen inputs, from both NOy and NHx, on diversity in various semi-natural and natural ecosystems are reviewed. The severity of these impacts depends on abiotic conditions (e.g. buffering capacity, soil nutrient status and soil factors that influence the nitrification potential and nitrogen immobilization rate) in the particular system. The sensitivity of fresh water ecosystems, wetlands and bogs, species-rich grasslands, heathlands and field layer ...
925 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2001in Biological Conservation 4.66
Dirk Maes26
Estimated H-index: 26
,
Hans Van Dyck32
Estimated H-index: 32
(University of Antwerp)
We illustrate the strong decrease in the number of butterfly species in Flanders (north Belgium) in the 20th century using data from a national butterfly mapping scheme. Nineteen of the 64 indigenous species went extinct and half of the remaining species are threatened at present. Flanders is shown to be the region with the highest number of extinct butterflies in Europe. More intensive agriculture practices and expansion of house and road building increased the extinction rate more than eightfo...
188 Citations Source Cite
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Published on Apr 1, 2014in Current Zoology 2.39
Markus Franzén16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ),
Petra Dieker5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Lüneburg University)
Climate warming has been more pronounced in the Arctic than elsewhere, resulting in a recent rapid glacial retreat. Over 85% of the Almajallojekna glacier has disappeared over the last 115 years and it is one of the fastest retreating glaciers in Sweden. In 2011 and 2012, at 18 sites in the vicinity of the remaining glacier network, we sampled arthropods and related the species richness, abundance and proportion of herbivores to altitude (ranging from 824 to 1, 524 m.a.s.l.) and the age of the s...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2015in Biological Conservation 4.66
Jörn Buse9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Martin Šlachta3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Sewanee: The University of the South)
+ 3 AuthorsMartin H. Entling17
Estimated H-index: 17
Abstract Habitat area and continuity are both key issues in conservation biology, for example in the choice and design of areas used as nature reserves. We analyzed how grazing continuity and pasture area affect species richness, functional groups and red-listed species of dung beetles, functionally important but often highly threatened organisms found in pasture areas. We used literature and our own field data to study a chronosequence of 22 pastures ranging from recently established sites up t...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2015in Journal for Nature Conservation 1.97
Jörn Buse9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Mainz),
Steffen Boch25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bern)
+ 1 AuthorsEva Maria Griebeler16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Mainz)
A higher risk of future range losses as a result of climate change is expected to be one of the main drivers of extinction trends in vascular plants occurring in habitat types of high conservation value. Nevertheless, the impact of the climate changes of the last 60 years on the current distribution and extinction patterns of plants is still largely unclear. We applied species distribution models to study the impact of environmental variables (climate, soil conditions, land cover, topography), o...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2012in Insect Conservation and Diversity 2.09
Valeria Trivellone4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Lucia Pollini Paltrinieri2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsMarco Moretti26
Estimated H-index: 26
The effects of the current changes in traditional agricultural practices in the Alps on the biodiversity affecting ecosystem functions and services are little known. Vineyards are among the oldest anthropogenic environments of high cultural and natural value that shape the landscape of large areas in Central and Southern Europe. In several mountain regions of the Alps, vineyards are a valid alternative to the landscape homogenisation that has followed post-cultural land abandonment and agricultu...
16 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2010in Insect Conservation and Diversity 2.09
Camilla Sarin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Linköping University),
Karl-Olof Bergman18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Linköping University)
1. Habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of three species of burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae, Zygaena lonicerae and Zygaena viciae) were studied at different life stages and different scales on the Baltic island of Oland, Sweden. 2. Larvae of all three species were more likely to occur in small-scale patches (i.e. 1 m2) with a greater cover of their most important host plants, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium medium/pratense, or Vicia spp., than were pupae or adults, and were also observe...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2012in Grass and Forage Science 1.57
Anne Farruggia12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique),
Bertrand Dumont26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
+ 3 AuthorsJ.-P. Garel2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
Grassland butterflies are on the decline throughout Europe. We tested an ‘alternative rotational stocking’ (ARS) strategy based on theoretical and practical aspects of grassland ecology, designed to increase butterfly diversity while also meeting farmers’ production objectives. This management strategy implies taking animals away from one subplot of the rotation during the main flowering period. Its feasibility and benefits on butterfly diversity were tested by comparing ARS with continuous stoc...
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2011in Insect Conservation and Diversity 2.09
Simone Fattorini8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Milano-Bicocca)
. 1. Urbanisation is an obvious cause of insect extinction, but few studies have investigated insect species loss in urban areas, and the importance of urban environment in conservation biology is controversial. 2. Urban Rome offered a unique possibility to study whether species rarity predisposes a species to extinction, and how urban green spaces are important in insect conservation. On the basis of records collected in more than one century, tenebrionid beetle extinction in Rome was related t...
24 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 5, 2010in Biological Reviews 11.70
Virginie M. Stevens23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Liège),
Camille Turlure15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Michel Baguette42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single ‘best’ method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of...
115 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2011in Journal of Insect Conservation 1.56
John W. Dover18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Staffordshire University),
S. Spencer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Butterfly Conservation)
+ 2 AuthorsAlejandro J. Rescia12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Complutense University of Madrid)
In this paper we describe the impact of the abandonment of traditional farming practices on butterflies and their habitats in traditional, often montane, pastoral systems. We link these declines to socioeconomic factors: illustrating how the failure of the CAP to support traditional farming leads to structural changes in farming enterprises—features which may be obscured by crude statistics on stock. We then call for the scheduled CAP reforms in 2013 to be radically realigned to support rather t...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2010in Restoration Ecology 2.54
Melinda L. Moir13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Melbourne),
Karl E. C. Brennan15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Melbourne)
+ 2 AuthorsMurray J. Fletcher4
Estimated H-index: 4
Restoring disturbed lands is essential for conserving biodiversity. In floristically diverse regions, restoring all plant species following anthropogenic disturbance is financially costly and it is unknown if this can be achieved. However, re-creating faunal habitat may not require reinstating all plant species if there is a high degree of redundancy. Here, we assess whether there is redundancy among a subset of native plant species chosen to restore fauna habitat following a severe disturbance....
13 Citations Source Cite