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Back to basics: histological, microbiological and biochemical sampling in wound care.

Published on Nov 1, 2013in Journal of Wound Care 1.67
· DOI :10.12968/jowc.2013.22.11.650
David Voegeli16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
Bashir A. Lwaleed16
Estimated H-index: 16
Abstract
Despite the advances in our understanding of normal and abnormal wound healing over the past decade, a specific biomarker which can be used clinically to identify ‘hard-to-heal’ wounds still remains elusive. Tissue and exudate samples extracted from the site of the wound are traditionally analysed using histological, microbiological and biochemical laboratory techniques. The aim of this paper is to review the advantages of these techniques, their limitations and the rapid developments in the fields of microbiology and proteomics, which are offering new insights into the differences between healing and non-healing wounds.
  • References (9)
  • Citations (2)
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References9
Newest
Markus Loeffler77
Estimated H-index: 77
(University of Tübingen),
Heiko Schuster13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Tübingen)
+ 1 AuthorsStefan Beckert17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Tübingen)
Valid and reproducible sampling techniques as well as processing protocols are required for the assessment of biomarkers and mediators contained in wound exudate. Moreover, the ideal technique should be easy to use even in daily clinical routine. This is challenging since wound fluid represents an inhomogeneous mixture of different exogenous and endogenous sources. Analyzing wound fluid, however, may facilitate clinical decision making. Many techniques for obtaining wound fluid have been describ...
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 3, 2010in Journal of Proteome Research 3.95
Sabine A. Eming36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
Manuel Koch42
Estimated H-index: 42
+ 6 AuthorsJay W. Fox52
Estimated H-index: 52
Chronic wounds associated with vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or aging are leading causes of morbidity in western countries and represent an unresolved clinical problem. The development of innovative strategies to promote tissue repair is therefore an important task that requires a more thorough analysis of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. We propose that the understanding of the complex biological events that control tissue repair or its failure largely benefits from a broad anal...
114 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Wound Repair and Regeneration 2.95
Jaymie Panuncialman5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Roger Williams Medical Center),
Scott Hammerman2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Roger Williams Medical Center)
+ 1 AuthorsVincent Falanga58
Estimated H-index: 58
(Boston University)
Wound biopsies are an essential diagnostic component in the management of chronic wounds. First, the possibility of malignancy or infection in the wound often requires sampling of the wound edge and its bed. Secondly, several practice guidelines recommend biopsying wounds that have not responded to treatment after 2–6 weeks. However, there has always been a concern that the biopsy may worsen the wound and delay overall healing. In this report, we investigated the safety and effects of wound biop...
26 Citations Source Cite
Erin A. Rayment7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Queensland University of Technology),
Zee Upton31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Queensland University of Technology)
Chronic leg ulcers are a complex medical condition with varied underlying causes and requiring diverse treatment strategies. It is generally accepted that chronic ulcers occur when the normal wound healing process is interrupted. These wounds are characterized by excessive protease activity, abundant granulation tissue, and decreased levels of growth factors, resulting in an overall poor prognosis for the patient. Many studies have focused on identifying the key proteases, specifically matrix me...
28 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2009in FEMS Microbiology Ecology 3.50
Cindy J. Smith15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Sheffield),
A. Mark Osborn25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Sheffield)
Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR or real-time PCR) approaches are now widely applied in microbial ecology to quantify the abundance and expression of taxonomic and functional gene markers within the environment. Q-PCR-based analyses combine ‘traditional’ end-point detection PCR with fluorescent detection technologies to record the accumulation of amplicons in ‘real time’ during each cycle of the PCR amplification. By detection of amplicons during the early exponential phase of the PCR, this enables the q...
408 Citations Source Cite
Dorne R. Yager24
Estimated H-index: 24
(VCU Medical Center),
Robert A. Kulina1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Laura A. Gilman1
Estimated H-index: 1
Wound healing of the skin is a complex biologic process involving temporal interactions between numerous types of cells, extracellular matrix molecules, and soluble factors. The process of repair can be viewed as involving 3 or 4 phases: homeostasis, inflammation, synthesis, and remodeling. These phases occur at different times and differ in their cellular, biochemical, and physiologic requirements. Disruption of one or more of these interactions can significantly interfere with the repair proce...
68 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2007in International Wound Journal 2.38
Keith Moore5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Elizabeth Mary Huddleston5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Smith & Nephew)
+ 1 AuthorsKeith Gordon Harding55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Cardiff University)
Disordered cell function within chronic wounds generates many parameters that can be measured to differentiate between healing and non healing status. Theoretically, these may form the basis of a wound assessment system to define disease severity and response to treatment. In a review of tissue, wound exudate and microbiology studies of venous leg ulcers, we identify many such parameters that are associated with healing status. These include cytokines, proteases and their inhibitors, senescence ...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2006in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 3.62
George Broughton8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Jeffrey E. Janis32
Estimated H-index: 32
,
Christopher E. Attinger36
Estimated H-index: 36
Learning Objectives:After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the actions of inflammatory mediators, growth factors, and nitric oxide involved in wound healing. 2. Describe the different cellular elements and their function in wound healing. 3. Discuss the three pha
319 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2003in Advances in Skin & Wound Care 1.38
Jennifer T. Trent17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Miami),
Daniel G. Federman27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Miami),
Robert S. Kirsner55
Estimated H-index: 55
8 Citations Source Cite
Cited By2
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Severin Läuchli1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Terry Swanson1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsKeith Gordon Harding55
Estimated H-index: 55
The effects of bacteria in chronic wounds may be viewed as a continuum of increasing clinical importance, ranging from contamination to colonisation to critical colonisation/local infection to systemic infection[3,7]. These stages can be characterised according to bacterial pathogenicity [Box 1], host response and tissue effects, i.e. the patient’s immune system response and resultant signs of inflammation and tissue damage[7, 8] [Figure 1]. The term ‘critical colonisation’ was developed to conv...
1 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Severin Läuchli1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Terry Swanson1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsKeith Gordon Harding55
Estimated H-index: 55