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Scalp Folliculitis with Demodex: Innocent Observer or Pathogen?
Abstract
Received on 19 September 2008; revised 18 December 2008.Address for correspondence: Dr. Angel Fernandez-Flores, MD, PhD. S.Patologia Celular, Clinica Ponferrada. Avenida Galicia 1. Zip code:24400. Ponferrada, Spain. Telephone: (00 34) 987 42 37 32. Fax: (0034) 987 42 91 02. E-mail: gpyauflowerlion@terra.es.
  • References (24)
  • Cited By (7)
2007 in Cutis
Kattie J. Allen1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Carrie L. Davis2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Steven D. Billings29
Estimated H-index: 29
... more
A 68-year-old healthy man presented with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) recalcitrant to multiple therapies, including permethrin cream 5%. Histologic examination detected the presence of chronic folliculitis and numerous Demodex organisms. A diagnosis of rosacealike demodicidosis was rendered, and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin and permethrin cream 5%, resulting in resolution of the folliculitis. Demodex infestation should be considered in any patient with rosacealike dermatitis resi...
Ref 3Cited 39 Source
2005 in Cutis
Sanfilippo Am1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
English Jc rd9
Estimated H-index: 9
Folliculitis is a common complaint and its etiology may be related to a variety of factors. We examine a case involving a 57-year-old white man presenting with scalp erythema and folliculitis secondary to Demodex mite infestation. We discuss the pathophysiology of Demodex folliculitis, as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment of this infection.
Cited 9 Source
Robert Aylesworth3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Minnesota),
J. Corwin Vance10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Minnesota)
The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are ubiquitous obligatory ectoparasites of man. We studied these mites in a consecutive series of skin biopsies submitted to a dermatopathology laboratory; 10% of all biopsies and 12% of all follicles contained demodectic mites. The prevalence of both species increased with age, but D. brevis had a lower prevalence. The face was most heavily infested by both species, but D. brevis had a wider distribution on the body. Males were mor...
Ref 13Cited 90
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William B. Nutting7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Massachusetts Amherst)
Ref 34Cited 48
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T. Nakagawa1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
M. Sasaki1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
K. Fujita1
Estimated H-index: 1
... more
A 43-year-old man with tumour stage mycosis fungoides developed multiple follicular pustules on the trunk during total-skin electron beam therapy. A potassium hydroxide preparation of the contents of the pustules revealed the presence of Demodex mites. The patient was treated with 6% sulphur lotion with rapid improvement of the cutaneous lesions. We believe that this case represents a pustular folliculitis caused by Demodex mites. Immunosuppression associated with mycosis fungoides and its treat...
Ref 9Cited 22
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Examination of 388 follicles in 24 large resections of skin for the presence of histologic folliculitis and Demodex mites uncovered a nonrandom association between these two phenomena. Demodex mites were found in 42% of follicles with inflammation, but in just 10% of follicles without inflammation. Eighty-three percent of follicles with Demodex showed inflammation. The probability that this result could occur by random chance alone was <0.001, thus suggesting that Demodex is associated with hist...
Ref 11Cited 31 Source Cite this paper
Walter B. Shelley35
Estimated H-index: 35
,
E. Dorinda Shelley13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Veronika Burmeister3
Estimated H-index: 3
Abstract A unilateral rosacea-like chronic dermatitis of the right side of the face was shown to harbor innumerable Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis . Treatment with oral metronidazole suppressed the dermatitis but did not significantly reduce the Demodex population. Treatment with topical crotamiton eliminated the Demodex and was curative. These observations support the view that D. folliculorum and D. brevis may be pathogenic when they are present in extremely large numbers.
Ref 14Cited 47
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1999 in Hautarzt
Grossmann B1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Kirsten Jung1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Ruthild Linse3
Estimated H-index: 3
Cited 11 Source Cite this paper
F. Forton1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
B. Seys1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Université catholique de Louvain)
A standardized skin-surface biopsy (1 cm2) of the cheek was performed in 49 patients with rosacea [13 with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR), three with squamous rosacea (SR), 33 with papulopustular rosacea (PPR)], and 45 controls. A mean density of 0.7 Demodex folliculorum/cm2 was found in controls, 98% of whom had less than five Demodex/cm2. When all clinical types of rosacea were considered collectively, the density of Demodex was significantly higher in patients with rosacea than in con...
Ref 31Cited 192
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  • References (24)
  • Cited By (7)
2015 in Hautarzt
C.-K. Hsu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(National Cheng Kung University),
A. Zink1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Technische Universität München),
K.-J. Wei1
Estimated H-index: 1
... more
Humane Demodexmilben (Demodex folliculorum und Demodex brevis) sind einzigartig in ihrer Eigenschaft, als obligat humane Ektoparasiten lebenslang Haartalgdruseneinheiten besiedeln zu konnen, ohne in der Mehrzahl der Falle eine Immunantwort des Wirts auszulosen. Dabei ist die Art der Symbiose zwischen Mensch und humanen Demodexmilben weiterhin unklar, wahrend die Pathogenitat der humanen Demodexmilben bei zahlreichen entzundlichen Hauterkrankungen heute immer besser verstanden wird. Bei der prima...
Ref 35Cited 1
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WenChieh Chen18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Technische Universität München),
Gerd Plewig51
Estimated H-index: 51
(Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
Human Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) hold a high rank in the evolutionary and phylogenetic hierarchy of the skin microbiome, although in most people their presence is of no consequence. While human demodicosis is a skin disease sui generis, it can mimic many other inflammatory dermatoses, such as folliculitis, rosacea and perioral dermatitis, leading to unspecific and confusing descriptions in the literature. Here, we propose to classify human demodicosis into a primary ...
Ref 61Cited 37
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2014 in Clinics in Dermatology [IF: 2.25]
Marcia Ramos-e-Silva18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Federal University of Rio de Janeiro),
Rodrigo Pirmez6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)
This paper reviews the recent literature on the diseases of the hair and pilosebaceous unit that may cause a red face. We discuss the epidemiology, clinicals, pathogenesis, and therapy of lichen planopilaris with its variants, discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, acne keloidalis nuchae, pseudofolliculitis barbae, tinea capitis, tinea barbae, folliculitis of diverse causative factors and inflammatory follicular keratotic syndromes, ulerythema ophryogenes, ...
Ref 77Cited 7
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Murat Durdu11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Başkent University),
Macit Ilkit17
Estimated H-index: 17
Folliculitis is a superficial inflammation of the hair follicles, and can be observed in individuals of any age or race. The incidence of folliculitis is unknown because most patients only consult a doctor in cases of increasing lesions. There are various infectious and non-infectious causes of folliculitis, and the most common causative agent is Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, several Gram-negative bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens can cause follicular papules and pustules. ...
Ref 173Cited 7
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2015 in Hautarzt
C.-K. Hsu1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
A. Zink1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
K.-J. Wei1
Estimated H-index: 1
... more
Ref 34
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Wissam Helou2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Emily Avitan-Hersh6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Reuven Bergman38
Estimated H-index: 38
Demodex is a saprophytic mite in humans commonly present in the pilosebaceous units, which has been implicated as a pathogen in several skin conditions. The clinical presentation and histopathology of Demodex folliculitis of the scalp have been described in only a few case reports. This study was performed to further elucidate the clinicopathological features of this entity. We have studied 333 consecutively submitted scalp biopsies performed for hair loss and alopecia. All specimens were comple...
Ref 29Cited 2
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2018 in Journal of Ethnopharmacology [IF: 2.98]
Nicholas J. Sadgrove6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of New England (Australia))
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Research in the past half a century has gradually sketched the biological mechanism leading to androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Until recently the aetiological paradigm has been too limited to enable intelligent commentary on the use of folk remedies to treat or reduce the expression of this condition. However, our understanding is now at a point where we can describe how some folk remedies work, predict how effective they will be or why they fail. Results The...
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