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Organizational interventions: facing the limits of the natural science paradigm

Published on Dec 1, 1999in Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 3.49
· DOI :10.5271/sjweh.485
Amanda Griffiths27
Estimated H-index: 27
This paper reviews current challenges in the conceptualization, design, and evaluation of organizational interventions to improve occupational health. It argues that attempts to confirm cause-and-effect relationships and allow prediction (maximize internal validity) are often made at the expense of generalizability (external validity). The current, dominant experimental paradigm in the occupational health research establishment, with its emphasis on identifying causal connections, focuses attention on outcome at the expense of process. Interventions should be examined in terms of (i) conceptualization, design and implementation (macroprocesses) and (ii) the theoretical mediating mechanisms involved (microprocesses). These processes are likely to be more generalizable than outcomes. Their examination may require the use of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It is suggested that such an approach holds unexplored promise for the healthier design, management, and organization of future work.
  • References (39)
  • Citations (100)
Published on Sep 25, 1998
Davydd J. Greenwood20
Estimated H-index: 20
Morten Levin14
Estimated H-index: 14
What Is Action Research? Introduction: Action Research, Diversity, and Democracy A History of Action Research Action Research Cases From Practice: The Stories of Stongfjorden, Mondragon, and Programs for Employment and Workplace Systems at Cornell University Science, Epistemology, and Practice in Action Research An Epistemological Foundation for Action Research Scientific Method and Action Research Social Science Research Techniques, Work Forms, and Research Strategies in Action Research Knowled...
1,059 Citations
Craig R. Ehlen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(USI: University of Southern Indiana),
Nace R. Magner15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Western Kentucky University),
Robert B. Welker10
Estimated H-index: 10
(SIU: Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Questionnaire data from 213 members of a voluntary professional organization were used to examine the interactive effects of outcome favourability and structural procedural fairness in organizational decision making on members' commitment to and resentment towards the organization. The focal interaction emerged on resentment such that members had particularly high resentment when the outcome was unfavourable and procedures were unfair. However, contrary to prior results from field studies relati...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1999
George Botterill3
Estimated H-index: 3
Peter Carruthers36
Estimated H-index: 36
Preface Acknowledgements 1. Introduction: some background 2. Folk-psychological commitments 3. Modularity and nativism 4. Mind-reading 5. Reasoning and irrationality 6. Content for psychology 7. Content naturalised 8. Forms of representation 9. Consciousness: the final frontier? References Index of names Index of subjects.
117 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1999in Industrial Health 1.32
Steven L. Sauter24
Estimated H-index: 24
(NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health),
Joseph J. Hurrel1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
+ 2 AuthorsJulian Barling65
Estimated H-index: 65
(Queen's University)
35 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1998in Stress Medicine
M.A.J. Kompier48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
Sabine A. E. Geurts40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
+ 2 AuthorsP.G.W. Smulders15
Estimated H-index: 15
Stress prevention programmes are predominantly reactive and aimed at individuals. Four factors that may contribute to this current status are discussed: the opinions and interests of company management, the nature of psychology, the difficulty of conducting methodologically ‘sound’ intervention studies and the denominational segregation of stress research. To increase the impact of organizational level interventions, the effects need to be demonstrated on matters that appeal to company managemen...
142 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1998in Annual Review of Public Health 10.78
Barbara A. Israel52
Estimated H-index: 52
Amy J. Schulz42
Estimated H-index: 42
+ 1 AuthorsAdam B. Becker16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UM: University of Michigan)
Community-based research in public health focuses on social, structural, and physical environmental inequities through active involvement of community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. Partners contribute their expertise to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and to integrate the knowledge gained with action to benefit the community involved. This review provides a synthesis of key principles of community-based research, exam...
3,204 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Work & Stress 2.68
Amanda Griffiths27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Nottingham)
Abstract This article considers some of the information that is available on the health of the working population in Great Britain. It considers ill-health retirements, incapacity benefit, injuries sustained at work and, in particular, data from a newly published report on self-reported work-related illness and sickness absence. This survey reveals that people consider their main work-related illness to be musculoskeletal disorders, followed by stress, anxiety and depression. These problem are k...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998
Gillian Symon4
Estimated H-index: 4
Catherine Cassell15
Estimated H-index: 15
Reflections on the Use of Qualitative Methods - Gillian Symon and Catherine Cassell Life Histories - Gill Musson Analytic Induction - Phil Johnson Critical Incident Technique - Elizabeth Chell Attributional Coding - Jo Silvester Qualitative Research Diaries - Gillian Symon Template Analysis - Nigel King The Use of Stories - Yiannis Gabriel Conversation Analysis - Dalvir Samra-Fredericks Pictorial Representation - David Stiles Soft Systems Analysis - Chris Clegg and Susan Walsh Approaching Observ...
450 Citations
Published on Jul 1, 1997in The Lancet 59.10
Michael Marmot162
Estimated H-index: 162
(UCL: University College London),
Hans Bosma6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UCL: University College London)
+ 2 AuthorsStephen Stansfeld72
Estimated H-index: 72
(UCL: University College London)
Summary Background The first Whitehall Study showed an inverse social gradient in mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) among British civil servants—namely, that there were higher rates in men of lower employment grade. About a quarter of this gradient could be attributed to coronary risk factors. We analysed 5-year CHD incidence rates from the Whitehall II study to assess the contribution to the social gradient of psychosocial work environment, social support, coronary risk factors, and p...
982 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1997in American Journal of Health Promotion 2.64
Catherine A. Heaney22
Estimated H-index: 22
(OSU: Ohio State University),
Ron Z. Goetzel22
Estimated H-index: 22
Abstract Purpose. The purpose of this article is to critically review evaluation studies of the health-related effects (i.e., health risk modification and reduction in worker absenteeism) of multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Search method. A comprehensive literature search conducted under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified 36 articles that examined health-related outcomes of multi-component programs. The authors identified 11 additional ar...
190 Citations Source Cite
Cited By100
Paul A. Fuller4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Lboro: Loughborough University),
Raymond Randall18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Lboro: Loughborough University)
+ 2 AuthorsAlistair G.F. Gibb31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Lboro: Loughborough University)
Long-running multi-faceted intervention studies are particularly problematic in large complex organizations where traditional methods prove too resource intensive and can yield inaccurate and incomplete findings. This paper describes the first use of, longitudinal tracer methodology (LTM), a realist approach to evaluation, to examine the links between multiple complex intervention activities (processes) and their outcomes on a construction megaproject. LTM is especially useful when the researche...
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in Safety Science 3.62
Donato Masi8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Aston University),
Donato Masi (Aston University)+ 1 AuthorsPeter Hasle21
Estimated H-index: 21
(AAU Cph: Aalborg University – Copenhagen)
Abstract Background A multitude of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) interventions have proven to be effective under controlled conditions, but their implementation in practice is often difficult and interventions may therefore not work as expected, especially when referring to Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs). Methods In order to solve this challenge, this paper proposes a model for the systematic design of OSH interventions that takes into account the underlying mechanisms and the ...
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Rajashree Kotejoshyer2
Estimated H-index: 2
Yuan Zhang6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 2 AuthorsLaura Punnett45
Estimated H-index: 45
Organizational features of work often pose obstacles to workforce health, and a participatory change process may address those obstacles. In this research, an intervention program sought to integrate occupational safety and health (OSH) with health promotion (HP) in three skilled nursing facilities. Three facilities with pre-existing HP programs served as control sites. The intervention was evaluated after 3–4 years through focus groups, interviews, surveys, and researcher observations. We asses...
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Imw Irene Niks2
Estimated H-index: 2
Jan de Jonge34
Estimated H-index: 34
+ 1 AuthorsIld Houtman1
Estimated H-index: 1
Effective interventions to prevent work stress and to improve health, well-being, and performance of employees are of the utmost importance. This quasi-experimental intervention study presents a specific method for diagnosis of psychosocial risk factors at work and subsequent development and implementation of tailored work stress interventions, the so-called DISCovery method. This method aims at improving employee health, well-being, and performance by optimizing the balance between job demands,...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Joost Dekker106
Estimated H-index: 106
(VUmc: VU University Medical Center),
Jos F. Brosschot39
Estimated H-index: 39
(LEI: Leiden University)
+ 1 AuthorsAkizumi Tsutsumi30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Kitasato University)
Scientific theory has two main functions. First, theory gives direction to the development of research questions (the heuristic function). Second, theory facilitates the interpretation and integration of research findings (the integrative function).
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Sabrina Rouat3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Lyon),
Victor Troyano (University of Lyon)+ 2 AuthorsPhilippe Sarnin5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Lyon)
La litterature scientifique fait part d’une individualisation des problemes de sante psychologique au travail faisant obstacle a l’efficacite de la prevention. A partir d’une methode mixte, nous cherchons a savoir si cette tendance a l’individualisation se retrouve dans la perception des acteurs de la sante au travail dans l’organisation et la maniere dont celle-ci impacte les modes d’intervention. Un questionnaire a ete propose a 137 individus sur l’importance qu’ils accordent aux facteurs inte...
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Published on Dec 1, 2016
The costs of poor psychological health to employees and organisations continue to mount, with the psychosocial work environment implicated as a causal factor. Despite this, organisational-level interventions aiming to address these working conditions have been under-represented in the literature and, where evident, provide inconsistent findings. Much of this inconsistency has been attributed to the complexity of such interventions and the many contextual and process-related factors that can affe...
Published on Sep 22, 2016in Frontiers in Psychology 2.13
Johan Simonsen Abildgaard7
Estimated H-index: 7
Per Øystein Saksvik16
Estimated H-index: 16
(NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology),
Karina Nielsen28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UEA: University of East Anglia)
Organizational interventions aiming at improving employee health and wellbeing have proven to be challenging to evaluate. To analyze intervention processes two methodological approaches have widely been used: quantitative (often questionnaire data), or qualitative (often interviews). Both methods are established tools, but their distinct epistemological properties enable them to illuminate different aspects of organizational interventions. In this paper, we use the quantitative and qualitative p...
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 2, 2016in Chronobiology International 2.56
Hylco H. Nijp3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Radboud University Nijmegen),
Debby G. J. Beckers15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
+ 2 AuthorsM.A.J. Kompier48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
ABSTRACTNew ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees’ outcomes (work–nonwo...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 7, 2016in Journal of Workplace Learning
Mats Eklöf13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Gothenburg),
Gunnar Ahlborg18
Estimated H-index: 18
Purpose – This paper aims to test the effects on aspects of workplace communication relevant to teamwork, and social support, in hospital units, of a dialog training (DT) intervention based on knowledge of key quality aspects related to interpersonal work-related communication among healthcare workers. Design/methodology/approach – A cluster randomized controlled study conducted among approximately 300 Swedish healthcare workers employed at ten hospital units. Workplace communication was measure...
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