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Dimensional analysis in surface irrigation

Published on Nov 1, 1994in Irrigation Science2.44
· DOI :10.1007/BF00187194
Theodor S. Strelkoff2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UA: University of Arizona),
Albert J. Clemmens24
Estimated H-index: 24
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service)
Abstract
The surface-irrigation design process requires multiple analyses of surface irrigations to test tentative values of design parameters in the search for an optimum. Preparation of general design charts can aid the design process if the users' test cases fall within the scope of the charts. The large number of independent variables in surface irrigation preclude the generation of charts covering the practical range of all independent variables, when these are in dimensioned form. Dimensionless formulations allow significant reductions in the amount of data generated and presented, without loss of generality. Relationships pertinent to surface-irrigation analyses and design are reviewed in dimensionless terms. Dimensionless forms are developed primarily from an examination of the equations governing surface-irrigation phenomena. Additionally, dimensionless forms are derived from a study of the dimensions of the pertinent variables, without recourse to the governing equations. The Buckingham Pi Theorem is derived in the context of surface irrigation. Different choices for reference variables, leading to different meanings for the resulting dimensionless parameters, have advantages and disadvantages for analysis and design of surface irrigation systems. The different systems developed in the past for border irrigation are reviewed and their consequences noted; new systems with potential for future studies are suggested. Particular attention is devoted to those dimensionless representations useful in design.
  • References (16)
  • Citations (12)
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ABSTRACT Level basins are designed based upon completion-of-advance irrigation. Designs are used for fields where water control is not practical or practiced. The design determines either the run length or the infiltrated depth when the other is specified. The resulting design provides for applying a relatively constant infiltrated depth when the unit inflow rate varies by a factor of four from a target unit inflow rate.
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ABSTRACT Zero inertia modeling was used to evaluate completion-of-advance irrigation in level basins with no run-off for use where inadequate control of water delivery exists. Distribution uniformity was good to extremely high for a wide range of conditions. The average depth of infiltration varied only moderately with large differences in the unit inflow rate. The effects on performance caused by errors in the soil surface parameters were moderate and can be compensated for. Completion-of-advan...
16 CitationsSource
The equations governing the flow of water in irrigation furrows are put in nondimensional form by expressing each variable therein in ratio to an appropriate reference variable. Two systems of reference varibles are considered, one based on normal depth in the given furrow geometry at the given inflow, the other on the given inflow and cutoff time. The first is especially valuable because of the clear physical significance of normal depth, but it is useless in horizontal furrows. The second syst...
5 CitationsSource
A procedure is presented for designing a system to reuse runoff from free outflow irrigation borders. Runoff volumes are obtained using four dimensionless variables and runoff curves developed with a zero‐inertia mathematical model. An example of the design procedure includes different modes of reuse system operation.
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Good irrigation management requires the ability to predict the outcome of any given combination of field and management parameters—soil infiltration characteristics, border length, slope and roughness, and inflow rate and cut‐off time in the case of simple border irrigation. While accurate mathematical models of the border‐irrigation process have been available for some time, their use requires high‐speed digital computing equipment. To eliminate the need for such complicated numerical solutions...
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A present capability exists for analysis of a border irrigation by the use of mathematical models of the process or by the use of curves representing generalized dimensionless results thereof. The corresponding synthesis, design of appropriate inflow rates and cutoff times for a given border, currently not so well established, is treated herein. A management-design chart is proposed for free-flowing (open-ended) borders. This is a plot of average low-quarter infiltration depth resulting from any...
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#1Muluneh Yitayew (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 12
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Non-dimensional runoff curves useful in the design of reuse systems are presented for free outflow irrigation borders. Pertinent open channel variables affecting runoff in border irrigation, including inflow rate, surface resistance, border slope, soil infiltration characteristics, application time, and length of border, were studied and their effects presented. Maximum advance distance, which is of interest in designing border irrigation systems, is also given by the zero runoff curves. A zero-...
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A previous solution for level basin design is expanded to cover a wider range of infiltration conditions. An analysis is performed to determine an approximate limit on basin length which depends upon application depth, infiltration conditions, roughness and the desired uniformity. Once a basin length is determined, the minimum unit flow rate necessary to achieve the desired uniformity is found. Basin area and width are then based on the available stream size. The solution is developed from the z...
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The procedures are examined for obtaining reasonable estimates of distribution uniformities for a wide variety of flow rates, length of run, infiltration characteristics, and flow resistance for the design and management of level basins. The dimensionless solution of advance and recession in level basins was extended to show the distribution uniformities for a wide variety of conditions. This was then transformed into two representations of distribution uniformity that are more useful for design...
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#1Hugo A. Loáiciga (UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)H-Index: 30
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Abstract A modified Green-and-Ampt model is formulated to quantify infiltration on sloping terrain underlain by homogeneous soil wetted by surficial water application. This paper’s theory for quantifying infiltration relies on the mathematical statement of the coupled partial differential equations (pdes) governing infiltration and runoff. These pdes are solved by employing an explicit finite-difference numerical method that yields the infiltration, the infiltration rate, the depth to the wettin...
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Abstract This article reviews procedures for estimating surface storage in surface irrigation volume balance calculations. Those procedures are based on the assumption of a power law relationship for flow depth as a function of distance along the stream. The analysis uses zero-inertia simulation and a system of dimensionless variables to examine how the depth profile varies as a function of hydraulic conditions when infiltration is given by the empirical extended Kostiakov equation. Alternatives...
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WinSRFR is a new generation of software for analyzing surface irrigation systems. Founded on an unsteady flow hydraulic model, the software integrates event analysis, design, and operational analysis functionalities, in addition to simulation. This paper provides an overview of functionalities, interface, and architectural elements of the software, and discusses technical enhancements in version 2.1, released in late 2007, and version 3.1, scheduled for release in 2009.
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In irrigation basins the decrease in the gradient of the water-surface elevation following inflow cutoff often leads to reduced rate of convergence, increased computational time, and reduced robustness of the numerical solutions of the recession phase. As the water surface levels off, the underlying physical problem simplifies, thus allowing the use of highly accurate yet simple alternate solutions to the full-numerical solution of the zero-inertia equations. For level basins, the simplification...
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Volume balance calculations used in surface irrigation engineering analysis require estimates of surface storage. These calculations are often performed by estimating upstream depth with a normal depth formula. That assumption can result in significant volume estimation errors when upstream flow depth evolves slowly with time and cannot be used under zero-slope conditions. This article examines the errors incurred when calculating upstream depth with an approximation to the zero-inertia equation...
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#1D. Zerihun (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 7
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Low irrigation efficiencies persist in irrigated areas near Yuma, Arizona due to poorly designed irrigation systems, poor condition of existing systems, inaccurate delivery of flow rates, and inadequate criteria for determining irrigation cutoff to individual basins. In farms where growers lack adequate control over the water supplied to individual basins, conventional irrigation cutoff criteria, based on precise measurement of inflow rates, are ineffective. A joint research project, involving t...
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: Border irrigation systems like most of the other surface irrigation systems, do not need too much energy and special equipment. Thus, many farmers have used this system for a long time. On the other hand, design of surface irrigation systems including border irrigation requires many input parameters, and need intensive engineering calculations. The burden of these requirements probably led the users to experimental design of the systems with low efficiencies. However, accurate design and high ...
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