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Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance.

Published on Jan 1, 1998in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
· DOI :10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.33
Claudia M. Mueller1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Cite
Abstract
Praise for ability is commonly considered to have beneficial effects on motivation. Contrary to this popular belief, six studies demonstrated that praise for intelligence had more negative consequences for students' achievement motivation than praise for effort. Fifth graders praised for intelligence were found to care more about performance goals relative to learning goals than children praised for effort. After failure, they also displayed less task persistence, less task enjoyment, more lowability attributions, and worse task performance than children praised for effort. Finally, children praised for intelligence described it as a fixed trait more than children praised for hard work, who believed it to be subject to improvement. These findings have important implications for how achievement is best encouraged, as well as for more theoretical issues, such as the potential cost of performance goals and the socialization of contingent self-worth.
  • References (53)
  • Citations (796)
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References53
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Benjamin M. Dykman11
Estimated H-index: 11
Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation ...
Published on Jan 1, 1997in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Judith M. Harackiewicz44
Estimated H-index: 44
,
Kenneth E. Barron24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
+ 2 AuthorsAndrew J. Elliot79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UR: University of Rochester)
The authors investigated personality predictors of achievement goals in an introductory psychology class, as well as the consequences of these goals for the motivation and performance of 311 undergraduates. Two dimensions of achievement motivation (workmastery and competitive orientations; J. T. Spence & R. L. Helmreich, 1983) predicted the goals endorsed. Individuals high in workmastery were more likely to adopt mastery goals and less likely to adopt work avoidance goals, whereas competitive in...
Published on Dec 1, 1995in Child Development 5.02
Karen Klein Burhans1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
This article presents an expanded view of the bases of helpless reactions to failure. This view stems from recent findings of helplessness in young children. Previous formulations have stressed the attainment of invariant trait conceptions as a necessary condition for helplessness to occur and have suggested that children are relatively invulnerable to helplessness prior to this attainment. We review a series of studies documenting that key aspects of helplessness are present in preschool and ea...
Published on Oct 1, 1995in Psychological Inquiry 10.27
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University),
Chi-yue Chiu48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
Ying-yi Hong21
Estimated H-index: 21
In this target article, we present evidence for a new model of individual differences in judgments and reactions. The model holds that people's implicit theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human actions and outcomes. We review research showing that when people believe that attributes (such as intelligence or moral character) are fixed, trait-like entities (an entity theory), they tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of these fixed traits ("I...
Published on Jan 1, 1995
Muriel Deutsch Lezak1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Jan 1, 1995
Ying-yi Hong21
Estimated H-index: 21
(HKUST: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology),
Chi-yue Chiu48
Estimated H-index: 48
(HKU: University of Hong Kong),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Self-confidence and its related constructs are among the most widely researched variables in the literature on achievement. However, findings on the link between self-confidence and achievement are not consistent. While some researchers have found significant correlations between self-confidence about one’s intellectual ability and achievement outcomes (e.g., Brookover & Passalacqua, 1981; J. G. Jones & Grieneeks, 1970; Marsh, 1984; Shavelson & Bolus, 1982; Shell, Murphy, & Bruning, 1989; for a ...
Published on Sep 1, 1994in Journal for The Theory of Social Behaviour 1.81
Catherine R. Delin7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UniSA: University of South Australia),
Roy F. Baurneister130
Estimated H-index: 130
(Case Western Reserve University)
Praise is a common feature of interpersonal interaction. It is used to encourage, socialize, ingratiate, seduce, reward, and influence other people. These assorted usages reflect a widespread belief in the efficacy of praise for altering the behaviour and affective state of the recipient. Despite this assumed power of praise, and despite its salience and frequency in human social interaction, research interest in praise has been sporadic and intermittent, and not united within an all-embracing t...
Published on Mar 1, 1994in Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 1.40
Sherry Mee Bell14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UT: University of Tennessee),
R. Steve McCallum17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UT: University of Tennessee)
+ 4 AuthorsAudrey Williams1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UT: University of Tennessee)
Ability, effort, and external attributions for academic success/failure as a function of achievement and gender were investigated for 237 elementary school children. Six attributions were the dependent measures for two 2 (achievement) × 2 (gender) MANOVAs. Groups were formed by Total Reading and Total Math scores on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills/4; for both MANOVAs results yielded significant main effects for achievement, but not for the gender and interaction effects. Follow-up ANOVAs ...
Published on Jan 1, 1994
Dale H. Schunk72
Estimated H-index: 72
(Purdue University)
A camp light holder including a telescoping shaft, structure including a substantially flat member extending transversely of the shaft at the bottom thereof and at least one elongated sharpened member for securing the shaft in an upright position on the ground, bail means removably secured to the top of the shaft for supporting a camper's gas lamp and reflecting means operably associated with the bail means for directing the light from the gas lamp. A clamp is provided in one modification of the...
Cited By796
Newest
Thomas Sullivan (Hult International Business School), N. Page2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Hult International Business School)
This chapter, examines the impact of fostering pro-development self-theories on early career success for a cohort of MBA graduates at an international business school in Boston, Massachusetts. Day (Leadersh Q 11:581–613, 2001, p. 601) proposes that “lecture-based, classroom training found in most formal leadership development programs is at best only partially effective,” citing short-lived behavioral change as a source of frustration. The chapter describes the early results of a longitudinal st...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Cognition 3.54
Kelsey Lucca2
Estimated H-index: 2
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Rachel O. Horton1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UW: University of Washington),
Jessica A. Sommerville23
Estimated H-index: 23
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Abstract Infants’ persistence in the face of challenges predicts their learning across domains. In older children, linguistic input is an important predictor of persistence: when children are praised for their efforts, as opposed to fixed traits, they try harder on future endeavors. Yet, little is known about the impact of linguistic input as individual differences in persistence are first emerging, during infancy. Based on a preliminary investigation of the CHILDES database, which revealed that...
Erin Albert (UNT: University of North Texas), Trent A. Petrie31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UNT: University of North Texas),
E. Whitney G. Moore5
Estimated H-index: 5
(WSU: Wayne State University)
Across a variety of domains, such as in academics and in the military, grit is a significant predictor of performance, even after controlling for dimensions of innate ability. However, little is kn...
Emily Peterson (UW: University of Washington), Jana Cohen (UW: University of Washington)
Epistemic curiosity is a desire for knowledge accompanied by positive emotions, increased arousal, and exploratory behavior (Grossnickle, Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 23–60, 2016). Although curiosity has typically been characterized as a domain-general construct, domain-general conceptualizations do not acknowledge systematic changes in an individuals’ development (e.g., domain knowledge) as they advance within a domain. Moreover, a domain-general conceptualization of curiosity stands i...
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Carolyn M. Callahan25
Estimated H-index: 25
,
Amy Price Azano6
Estimated H-index: 6
Published on Jul 22, 2019in Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3.26
Kazuhiro Ohtani2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Hokkaido University),
Kou Murayama26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Reading)
+ 5 AuthorsAyumi Tanaka3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Dodai: Doshisha University)
Adolescents’ depressive symptoms are affected by a number of factors including life stress, gender, socio-economic status, and parental depression symptoms. However, little is known about whether adolescent depressive symptoms are also affected by parental motivational characteristics. The current study explores the relationship between parental motivational perseverance (i.e., parents’ persistency in the face of setbacks and difficulties) and children’s depressive symptoms during the adolescenc...
Published on Jul 2, 2019in Eye 2.37
Paula Brown1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Psychology of Sport and Exercise 2.71
Olivier Rascle9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Maxime Charrier1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsGeneviève Cabagno4
Estimated H-index: 4
Abstract Is feedback delivered by an expert sufficient to improve performance? In two studies, we tested, following failure, the influence of group membership (ingroup/outgroup) and source expertise (high/low) on the effectiveness of attributional feedback on performance. Results revealed a significant interactive effect, showing an increase of performance only when the source was an expert ingroup member (Study 1). This interaction was replicated on performance and success expectations in Study...
Published on May 30, 2018in Journal of Educational Computing Research 1.54
Xiaoxia Huang5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Western Kentucky University),
Richard E. Mayer98
Estimated H-index: 98
(UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)
This study investigated the effectiveness of adding four self-efficacy features to an online statistics lesson, based on Bandura’s four sources of self-efficacy information. In a randomized between-subjects experiment, participants learned statistical rules in an example-based online environment with four self-efficacy features added (treatment group) or not (control group). Results of analyses of variance showed that the treatment group performed better on practice (d = 0.36), retention (d = 0....