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The increasing burden of depression

Published on May 1, 2011in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment2.228
· DOI :10.2147/NDT.S19617
Jean-Pierre Lépine2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Mike Briley25
Estimated H-index: 25
Sources
Abstract
Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large.
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References25
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#1Maria Melchior (French Institute of Health and Medical Research)H-Index: 32
#2Jane E. Ferrie (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 75
Last. Jenny Head (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 54
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Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990-1992) and were linked to mort...
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Depression is a disabling condition resulting in significant impairment in social functioning, involving the patient’s family, friends, work colleagues, and society at large. Although both psychologic and pharmacologic treatments generally improve many depressive symptoms, they do not always result in significant improvement in social functioning. The importance of recovery of social functioning in depressed patients is now widely appreciated, and studies are beginning to include it in evaluatio...
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#1Mascha C. ten Doesschate (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 5
Last. Aart H. ScheneH-Index: 53
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Objective: Depression is a disease with high recurrence rates. Identifying predictors of recurrence and their relative importance in patients with recurrent depression is important for a better understanding of the course of this disease. This type of knowledge can be used to optimize and tailor preventive strategies of recurrence. In this study, we examined predictors of recurrence over a 5.5-year follow-up period and quantified to which extent these predictors explained observed variation in r...
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#1Osvaldo P. Almeida (UWA: University of Western Australia)H-Index: 67
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Context Depression is associated with increased mortality, but it is unclear if this relationship is dose-dependent and if it can be modified by treatment with antidepressants.
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The risk of depression in women is greatest during the child-bearing years. Considering that about 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, women may become pregnant while on antidepressants, may have their depression or anxiety relapse during pregnancy or postpartum, or may be unwell and untreated before and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The impact of the symptoms of depression and anxiety can cause risk to the mother and also have a negative effect on child development. This presentatio...
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Epidemiological surveys have consistently documented significantly higher rates of anxiety and mood disorders among women than men1, 2 and significantly higher rates of externalizing and substance use disorders among men than women.3–5 Although a number of biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial hypotheses have been proposed to account for these patterns,6–8 evidence that gender differences in depression9, 10 and substance use11–13 have narrowed in a number of countries has led to a specia...
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This study presents national data on the comparative role impairments of common mental and chronic medical disorders in the general population. These data come from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey. Disorder-specific role impairment was assessed with the Sheehan Disability Scales, a multidimensional instrument that asked respondents to attribute impairment to particular conditions. Overall impairment was significantly higher for mental tha...
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#1Sheila M. Marcus (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 24
#2Julie E. Heringhausen (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 2
Prevalence studies show that one in five women experience an episode of major depressive disorder during their lifetime. It is important for health care providers to be aware of (1) the frequency of depression in this population; (2) signs, symptoms, and appropriate screening methods; and (3) health risks for the mother and growing fetus if depression is undetected or untreated. Because management of depressed pregnant women also includes care of a growing fetus, treatment may be complicated and...
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#1Sophie Grigoriadis (Women's College Hospital)H-Index: 24
#2Gail Erlick Robinson (UHN: University Health Network)H-Index: 15
Background. Gender differences in depression have been documented for many years and thought to be insignificant to treatment selection until recently.Methods. This article reviews gender differences in the prevalence, presentation, etiology, and antidepressant treatment of depressive disorders.Results. The high female to male sex ratio in the prevalence of depression, especially during the reproductive years, is one of the most replicated findings in epidemiology. Women more often have a season...
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