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Characterization of the genes encoding phycoerythrin in the red alga Rhodella violacea : evidence for a splitting of the rpeB gene by an intron
Abstract
Abstract The phycobilisome of the eukaryotic unicellular red alga Rhodella violacea presents in some respects an organization that is intermediate between those of the homologous counterparts found in cyanobacteria (the putative chloroplast progenitor) and more advanced, pluricellular red algae. This suggests evolutionary relationships that we investigated at the genome level. The present work describes the sequences of two rhodophytan phycobilisome genes, rpeA and rpeB. These chloroplast genes encode the alpha and beta subunits of phycoerythrin, the major component of the light-harvesting antennae and one of the most abundant cellular proteins in these algae. The amino acid sequences deduced from both rpeA and rpeB present strong homologies with those previously reported for phycoerythrin subunits of cyanobacteria, rhodophyta, and cryptomonads. The main difference with the corresponding cyanobacterial genes was the unexpected occurrence of an intervening sequence that split rpeB into two exons. This intervening sequence presents characteristics of group II introns but lacks several structural domains. Transcriptional analyses showed that the two rpe genes are cotranscribed and that the major RNA species detected corresponds to a mature mRNA lacking the intron. As the phycobiliproteins form a group of closely related polypeptides in cyanobacteria and rhodophyta, the molecular events affecting the corresponding genes, such as the rpeB intron, may be a clue to elucidate some aspects of the molecular processes involved in the evolution of plastid genes.
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  • Cited By (27)
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  • Cited By (27)
S M Wilbanks1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
R de Lorimier7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Alexander N. Glazer20
Estimated H-index: 20
Abstract The genes for the alpha and beta subunits of a novel six bilin-bearing (class II) phycoerythrin were cloned from Synechococcus sp. WH8020 and sequenced. The cloned genes (mpeA and mpeB) were detected by homology with the genes for C-phycoerythrin from Pseudanabaena sp. PCC7409. The mpe locus occurs once in the genome and is arranged similarly to that of many other phycobiliproteins, with mpeA shortly 3' of mpeB. Sequence comparison suggests that this phycoerythrin (and perhaps all class...
29 Citations Download PDF
1989 in Journal of BacteriologyIF: 3.22
Thierry Damerval7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pasteur Institute),
Anne-Marie Castets9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Pasteur Institute)
+ 2 AuthorsN Tandeau de Marsac20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Pasteur Institute)
Abstract Gas vesicles (GV) are specialized cell inclusions providing many aquatic procaryotes with buoyancy. In the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. strain PCC 7601, at least four genes are involved in GV formation. One of those, gvpA1, encodes the major structural GV protein (70 amino acids) and belongs to a multigene family (gvpA1, gvpA2, gvpD). The fourth gene, gvpC, encodes a 162-amino-acid protein, the function of which is still unclear. We used the Calothrix gvpA1 and gvpC genes as probes to p...
34 Citations Download PDF Cite
A V Klotz1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
A N Glazer1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract The amino acid sequence around the sites of attachment of all the bilin prosthetic groups of Gastroclonium coulteri R-phycoerythrin, (alpha beta)6 gamma, have been determined. The sequences of tryptic peptides derived from the alpha and beta subunits are (Formula: see text) where the designations alpha and beta refer to the subunits from which the peptides derived. Cysteinyl residues involved in bilin attachment are indicated with an asterisk. Each peptide carries a single bilin, either...
53 Citations Download PDF
1986 in CellIF: 31.40
R. van der Veen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Amsterdam),
Annika C. Arnberg5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 3 AuthorsLeslie A. Grivell42
Estimated H-index: 42
(University of Amsterdam)
Abstract Excised group II introns in yeast mitochondria appear as covalently closed circles under the electron microscope. We show that these circular molecules are branched and resemble the lariats arising through splicing of nuclear pre-mRNAs in yeast and higher eukaryotes. One member of this intron class (a15c in the gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) is capable of self-splicing in vitro, giving correct exon-exon ligation and resulting in the appearance of both linear and lariat forms o...
228 Citations Source Cite
1986 in CellIF: 31.40
Carlo Schmelzer12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich),
Rudolf J. Schweyen16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
Abstract Group II intron bl1 from yeast mitochondria can undergo self-splicing in vitro. Exons become correctly ligated, and the excised intron has a lariat structure similar to that of introns from nuclear mRNA. The branch point of the bl1 lariat is located eight or nine nucleotides upstream of the 3′ end of the intron and is part of a hairpin structure that is well conserved among group II introns. Several mutations next to the branch point and in other parts of the core structure of group II ...
139 Citations Download PDF Cite
1990 in ScienceIF: 41.06
Ming-Qun Xu3
Estimated H-index: 3
(State University of New York System),
S. D. Kathe1
Estimated H-index: 1
(State University of New York System)
+ 2 AuthorsDavid A. Shub28
Estimated H-index: 28
(State University of New York System)
A self-splicing group I intron has been found in the gene for a leucine transfer RNA in two species of Anabaena, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium. The intron is similar to one that is found at the identical position in the same transfer RNA gene of chloroplasts of land plants. Because cyanobacteria were the progenitors of chloroplasts, it is likely that group I introns predated the endosymbiotic association of these eubacteria with eukaryotic cells.
182 Citations Download PDF Cite
1987 in CellIF: 31.40
George Brawerman26
Estimated H-index: 26
The steady-state levels of functional mRNAs are determined in part by their rates of decay in the cytoplasm. Hence, this process plays an important role in the control of gene expression. Individual mRNA species differ widely with respect to metabolic stability. In mammalian cells, the mRNAs for transiently expressed genes such as c-fos and c-myc have half-life (tIh) values as low as 15 min, while others such as 8-globin mRNA appear to be fully stable. Bacterial mRNAs decay far more rapidly, wit...
250 Citations Download PDF Cite
1990 in ScienceIF: 41.06
Mg Kuhsel1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Indiana University Bloomington),
R Strickland1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Indiana University Bloomington),
Jeffrey D. Palmer87
Estimated H-index: 87
(Indiana University Bloomington)
Introns have been found in the genomes of all major groups of organisms except eubacteria. The presence of introns in chloroplasts and mitochondria, both of which are of eubacterial origin, has been interpreted as evidence either for the recent acquisition of introns by organelles or for the loss of introns from their eubacterial progenitors. The gene for the leucine transfer RNA with a UAA anticodon [tRNALeu (UAA)] from five diverse cyanobacteria and several major groups of chloroplasts contain...
222 Citations Download PDF Cite
1990 in Plant Molecular BiologyIF: 3.54
Michael Reith24
Estimated H-index: 24
(National Research Council),
Susan E. Douglas32
Estimated H-index: 32
(National Research Council)
Recent investigations [21, 37] have shown that, in cryptomonads, the phycobiliproteins are located within the thylakoid lumen rather than on the stromal side of this membrane as found in cyanobacteria and red algae. To examine possible mechanisms involved in targeting this protein to the thylakoid lumen, the plastid-encoded cpeB gene from Cryptomonas Φ was sequenced. This gene encodes an open reading frame of 177 amino acids that is highly similar to known β-phycoerythrin proteins. cpeB is expre...
24 Citations Source Cite
  • References (0)
  • Cited By (27)
1998
Jeffrey D. Palmer87
Estimated H-index: 87
,
Charles F. Delwiche42
Estimated H-index: 42
Plastids, the eukaryotic organelles responsible for photosynthesis and other biochemical tasks, are semiautonomous endosymbionts derived from previously free-living cyanobacteria (Gray, 1992; Douglas, 1994; Loiseaux-de Goer, 1994; Bhattacharya and Medlin, 1995). In this chapter we discuss, with an emphasis on molecular phylogenetic evidence, our current understanding of the origin and diversification of these organelles, provide an overview of plastid diversity in the context of endosymbiosis, a...
66 Citations Source Cite
Wolfgang Löffelhardt24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Vienna),
Hans J. Bohnert75
Estimated H-index: 75
(University of Arizona)
Publisher Summary This chapter describes the importance of Cyanophora cyanelles for the comprehension of plastid evolution. It summarizes cyanelle biochemistry, wall structure, and genome organization. Cyanelles, like cyanobacteria, are surrounded by a peptidoglycan wall. In addition, cyanelles resemble cyanobacteria in their pigment composition and in possessing a carboxysome-like structure. Cyanophora cyanelles, especially in the stationary phase of growth, develop a characteristic protein inc...
11 Citations Source Cite
1994
Susan E. Douglas32
Estimated H-index: 32
(National Research Council)
Plastids from extant plants exhibit considerable diversity in morphological and biochemical characters. Although most authors have agreed on xenogenous (endosymbiotic) rather than autogenous origins of plastids (discussed by Doolittle (1982) in ‘The Biology of Cyanobacteria’), details concerning the endosymbiotic events remain unresolved.
71 Citations Source Cite
1994 in FEBS JournalIF: 4.53
Axel Ducret7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Walter Sidler19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 1 AuthorsHerbert Zuber38
Estimated H-index: 38
We present here the complete primary structure of R-phycocyanin-I α and β subunits from the red alga Porphyridium cruentum. The α chain is composed of 162 amino acid residues (18049Da, calculated from sequence, including chromophore) and carries a phycocyanobilin pigment covalently linked to Cys84. The β chain contains 172 amino acids (19344Da, calculated from sequence, including chromophores) and carries a phycocyanobilin pigment covalently linked at Cys82 and a phycoerythrobilin pigment at Cys...
26 Citations Source Cite
Michael W. Gray65
Estimated H-index: 65
(Dalhousie University)
Abstract Molecular data (particularly sequence analyses) have established that two eukaryotic organelles, the mitochondrion and the plastid, are the descendants of endosymbiotic (eu)bacteria whose closest living relatives are the α-Proteobacteria (mitochondrion) and Cyanobacteria (plastid). This review describes recent data that favor the view that each organelle arose via this primary endosymbiotic pathway only once (monophyletic origin), such as the discovery of group I introns that appear to ...
200 Citations Source Cite
1994 in Plant PhysiologyIF: 5.95
C. Bernard3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
N Tandeau de Marsac1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Jean-Claude Thomas20
Estimated H-index: 20
3 Citations Source Cite
2011 in Process BiochemistryIF: 2.62
Asha Parmar9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Sardar Patel University),
Niraj Kumar Singh10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Sardar Patel University)
+ 1 AuthorsDatta Madamwar42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Sardar Patel University)
Abstract In this study, we describe a series of experiments presenting the biochemical evidence for the cleavage of an intact phycoerythrin (α and β subunits) to phycoerythrin with only fragmented α-subunit, which is also functional, in Phormidium sp. A27DM. Culture, whether grown in different conditions (static or sparging) or in medium with different pH, produced truncated phycoerythrin. This indicated that the growth conditions or pH of medium did not lead to cleavage of phycoerythrin. Cultur...
12 Citations Source Cite
1997 in Phycological ResearchIF: 1.27
Beom-Kyu Kim1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Yuji Fujita14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Nagasaki University)
SUMMARY The genes encoding the α and β subunits of the phycoerythrin (PE) from the red algae Porphyra yezoensis Ueda and Porphyra tenera K jell man were isolated by PCR amplification. The PE u subunit gene was located downstream (+ 74bp) of the PE β sub-unit encoding gene. The PE amino acid sequences of P. yezoensis and P. tenera, as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cpeA and cpeB genes, were respectively, 83–89% and 84–87% identical to species in other red algal genera. They were also...
1 Citations Source Cite
Devendra Kumar2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Indian Agricultural Research Institute),
Dolly Wattal Dhar11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Indian Agricultural Research Institute)
+ 2 AuthorsSuresh Walia18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Indian Agricultural Research Institute)
In this study a simple protocol was developed for purifying phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis (CCC540) by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by a single step chromatography by using DEAE-Cellulose-11 and acetate buffer. Precipitation with 65 % ammonium sulphate resulted in 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with purity of 1.5 (A620/A280). Thro1ugh chromatography an 80 % recovery of phycocyanin with a purity of 4.5 (A620/A280) was achieved. In SDS_PAGE analysis, the purified PC sho...
27 Citations Source Cite
2011 in Bioresource TechnologyIF: 5.81
Asha Parmar9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Sardar Patel University),
Niraj Kumar Singh10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Sardar Patel University)
+ 2 AuthorsDatta Madamwar42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Sardar Patel University)
Abstract The present study is focused on purification, characterization and comparison of phycoerythrins from three different marine cyanobacterial cultures – Phormidium sp. A27DM, Lyngbya sp. A09DM and Halomicronema sp. A32DM. ‘Phycoerythrin’ was successfully purified and characterized. On SDS–PAGE, the PE purified from all three young cultures showed four bands – corresponding to α and β subunits of each of PE-I and PE-II. However, phycoerythrin purified after prolonged growth of Phormidium sp...
38 Citations Source Cite
View next paperA High-Resolution Gene Map of the Chloroplast Genome of the Red Alga Porphyra purpurea.