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Youth Resistance Training: Updated Position Statement Paper From the National Strength and Conditioning Association

Published on Aug 1, 2009in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 3.02
· DOI :10.1519/JSC.0b013e31819df407
Avery D. Faigenbaum48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
William J. Kraemer97
Estimated H-index: 97
+ 4 AuthorsThomas W. Rowland39
Estimated H-index: 39
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Abstract
Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (219). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (196). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (28,66,111,139,147,234). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal (5,6,8,12,18,33,104,167,192,215). Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (169). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase (127,252) and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations. The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training programs are attainable by children and adolescents who follow age-specific resistance training guidelines. The NSCA published the first position statement paper on youth resistance training in 1985 (170) and revised this statement in 1996 (72). The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1996 recommendations on 4 major areas of importance. These topics include (a) the potential risks and concerns associated with youth resistance training, (b) the potential health and fitness benefits of youth resistance training, (c) the types and amount of resistance training needed by healthy children and adolescents, and (d) program design considerations for optimizing long-term training adaptations. The NSCA based this position statement paper on a comprehensive analysis of the pertinent scientific evidence regarding the anatomical, physiological, and psychosocial effects of youth resistance training. An expert panel of exercise scientists, physicians, and health/physical education teachers with clinical, practical, and research expertise regarding issues related to pediatric exercise science, sports medicine, and resistance training contributed to this statement. The NSCA Research Committee reviewed this report before the formal endorsement by the NSCA. For the purpose of this article, the term children refers to boys and girls who have not yet developed secondary sex characteristics (approximately up to the age of 11 years in girls and 13 years in boys; Tanner stages 1 and 2 of sexual maturation). This period of development is referred to as preadolescence. The term adolescence refers to a period between childhood and adulthood and includes girls aged 12-18 years and boys aged 14-18 years (Tanner stages 3 and 4 of sexual maturation). The terms youth and young athletes are broadly defined in this report to include both children and adolescents. By definition, the term resistance training refers to a specialized method of conditioning, which involves the progressive use of a wide range of resistive loads and a variety of training modalities designed to enhance health, fitness, and sports performance. Although the term resistance training, strength training, and weight training are sometimes used synonymously, the term resistance training encompasses a broader range of training modalities and a wider variety of training goals. The term weightlifting refers to a competitive sport that involves the performance of the snatch and clean and jerk lifts. This article builds on previous recommendations from the NSCA and should serve as the prevailing statement regarding youth resistance training. It is the current position of the NSCA that: 1. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program is relatively safe for youth. 2. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can enhance the muscular strength and power of youth. 3. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can improve the cardiovascular risk profile of youth. 4. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can improve motor skill performance and may contribute to enhanced sports performance of youth. 5. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can increase a young athlete's resistance to sports-related injuries. 6. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can help improve the psychosocial well-being of youth. 7. A properly designed and supervised resistance training program can help promote and develop exercise habits during childhood and adolescence.
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  • Citations (438)
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References226
Newest
Published on Jan 27, 2010in Journal of Knee Surgery 1.59
Timothy E. Hewett90
Estimated H-index: 90
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Gregory D. Myer21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Kevin R. Ford50
Estimated H-index: 50
(UC: University of Cincinnati)
139 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 26, 2009in The Physical Educator
Avery D. Faigenbaum48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
Anne Farrell5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 5 AuthorsJay R. Hoffman35
Estimated H-index: 35
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a school-based plyometric training program (i.e., Plyo Play) on children’s fitness performance. Forty children (8 to 11 yrs) participated in the program and 34 age-matched children served as controls. Performance of the long jump, sit and reach flexibility, abdominal curl, push-up, shuttle run, and half mile run was assessed at baseline and post-training. Children who participated in the program made significantly greater improvements than ...
22 Citations
Published on Nov 1, 2008in Pediatric Exercise Science 1.71
Avery D. Faigenbaum48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
Nicholas A. Ratamess48
Estimated H-index: 48
+ 4 AuthorsJay R. Hoffman35
Estimated H-index: 35
The purpose of this study was to assess the lifting performance of boys (N = 12; age 11.3 ± 0.8 yr), teens (N = 13; age 13.6 ± 0.6 yr), and men (N = 17; age 21.4 ± 2.1 yr) to various rest interval (RI) lengths on the bench press exercise. Each subject performed 3 sets with a 10 repetition maximum load and a 1, 2, and 3 min RI between sets. Significant differences in lifting performance between age groups were observed within each RI for selected sets with boys and teens performing significantly ...
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Published on Jul 1, 2008in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 3.02
Laura A Milliken1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Avery D. Faigenbaum48
Estimated H-index: 48
+ 1 AuthorsWayne L. Westcott16
Estimated H-index: 16
Abstract Milliken, LA, Faigenbaum, AD, Loud, RL, and Westcott, W. Correlates of upper and lower body muscular strength in children. J Strength Cond Res 22: 1339-1346, 2008- Despite the widespread use of and acceptance of muscular fitness field tests in national youth fitness test batteries, little is known about how these field tests compare to 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and identify correlates of muscular strength in chi...
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Published on Jun 1, 2008in International Journal of Obesity 4.51
Amanda C. Benson13
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Margaret Torode7
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M. A. Fiatarone Singh7
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The effect of high-intensity progressive resistance training on adiposity in children: a randomized controlled trial
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Published on Jun 1, 2008in Strength and Conditioning Journal 0.99
Ian Jeffreys11
Estimated H-index: 11
MANY HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMS TAKE A SHORT TERM APPROACH TO PLANNING, EMPHASIZING COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE RATHER THAN ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT. WHILE FACILITATING PERFORMANCE IN THE SHORT TERM, THIS APPROACH CAN ULTIMATELY LIMIT THE FULL POTENTIAL OF THE ATHLETE. QUADRENNIAL PLANNING ALLOWS FOR LONGTERM PLANNING TO BE INSTIGATED, WHICH FOCUSES ON ALLOWING ATHLETES TO REACH THEIR FULL POTENTIAL AND ULTIMATELY RESULTS IN HIGHER AND MORE STABLE LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE.
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Published on Jun 1, 2008in Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 3.46
David G. Behm42
Estimated H-index: 42
(TCNJ: The College of New Jersey),
Avery D. Faigenbaum48
Estimated H-index: 48
(TCNJ: The College of New Jersey)
+ 1 AuthorsPanagiota KlentrouP. Klentrou1
Estimated H-index: 1
(TCNJ: The College of New Jersey)
Many position stands and review papers have refuted the myths associated with resistance training (RT) in chil- dren and adolescents. With proper training methods, RT for children and adolescents can be relatively safe and improve overall health. The objective of this position paper and review is to highlight research and provide recommendations in as- pects of RT that have not been extensively reported in the pediatric literature. In addition to the well-documented increases in muscular strengt...
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Jeffrey M. Vaughn1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Boston Children's Hospital),
Lyle J. Micheli61
Estimated H-index: 61
(Harvard University)
In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number of youth participating in organized and competitive sports. Recent studies have supported the participation of preadolescent athletes in strength training to improve health and performance in sports. This article presents the most recent data available to help youth develop a safe and effective strength training program. Variables, such as the recommended rate of progression, the number of sets and repetitions an athlete should ...
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Published on May 1, 2008in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 3.02
Eduardo J. A. M. Santos4
Estimated H-index: 4
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Manuel Janeira8
Estimated H-index: 8
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a complex training program, a combined practice of weight training and plyometrics, on explosive strength development of young basketball players. Twenty-five young male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were assessed using squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT), before and after a 10-week in-season training program. Both the control group (CG; n...
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Published on Mar 1, 2008in Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2.70
Margo Mountjoy25
Estimated H-index: 25
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Neil Armstrong44
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+ 8 AuthorsPatricia Sangenis1
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Published on May 24, 2019in Scientific Reports 4.01
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Francisco Javier Orquín-Castrillón (CUA: The Catholic University of America)+ 4 AuthorsAlejandro Martínez-Rodríguez1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CUA: The Catholic University of America)
Physical exercise is considered an important intervention for promoting well-being and healthy aging. The objective was to determine the effects of moderate-to-high intensity resistance circuit training on different parameters of body composition, functional autonomy, muscular strength and quality of life in elderly. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 45 subjects (27 females, 18 males) aged between 65–75 years old from Murcia (Spain) were divided by sex, and randomly to expe...
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Published on Dec 1, 2019in Sports Medicine - Open
Helen Collins (Edin.: University of Edinburgh), Josephine N. Booth8
Estimated H-index: 8
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+ 1 AuthorsSamantha Fawkner2
Estimated H-index: 2
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Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are strongly related to physical activity (PA) in childhood and beyond. To develop FMS, resistance training (RT) may be a favourable intervention strategy. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the effect of RT interventions on FMS in youth. Meta-analysis followed the PRISMA guidelines (Prospero registration number CRD42016038365). Electronic literature databases were searched from the year of their inception up to and including June 20...
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Published on Dec 1, 2019in Sports Medicine - Open
Helen Collins (Edin.: University of Edinburgh), Josephine N. Booth8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh)
+ 2 AuthorsAilsa Niven10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh)
Background There is growing evidence that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for the mental health of young people. One area that has been widely examined is the impact of PA on ‘the self’, which is a term that encompasses a range of specific and related terms (e.g. self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-perceptions). There is evidence that PA is strongly associated with ‘the self’ in childhood and beyond. However, the impact of the specific PA of resistance training (RT) is not yet clear. The purpo...
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Published on Jun 30, 2019
SoJung Lee34
Estimated H-index: 34
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Yoon-Myung Kim8
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(Yonsei University),
Jennifer L. Kuk29
Estimated H-index: 29
(York University)
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Background Nowadays resistance and plyometric training are deemed to be a crucial component of a health promoting lifestyle in youth. Effects of resistance training and plyometric training may actually be synergistic, with their combined effects being greater than each program performed alone.
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Published on Jun 6, 2019in Medicina-buenos Aires 0.53
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Background and objectives: Ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP) often develop impaired gait, and reduced active knee extension is often a part of the problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a combined intervention program including stretching and progressive resistance exercise (PRE) targeting active knee extension on gait function, in children with spastic CP. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven children (21 boys, 16 girls, mean age 10.2 (±2.3) years), classified by Gross Moto...
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in European Journal of Integrative Medicine 0.95
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Balázs Meszler (PTE: University of Pécs)+ 3 AuthorsMárk Váczi6
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Abstract Introduction: Both resistance and stretch-shortening cycle exercise have positive effects on physical abilities and health related factors. In the present experiment we tested the hypothesis that an 8-week-long combined strength and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training is superior to strength training alone in the development of walking and running economy in healthy untrained women. Methods: Twenty untrained female college students (age = 21.5 ± 2.1 years, body mass index = 22.3 ...
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Rugby union is a late specialisation sport. As a consequence, youth players may still be engaged in other activities and sports throughout the year as they transition to rugby specialisation. Limited research exists quantifying rugby union training and matches as well as engagement in other activities and sports. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and compare rugby union training, matches and other activities of elite youth U15 and U16 rugby union players at different stages of the...
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This study evaluates the physical and psychosocial effects of an inpatient exercise program for children and adolescents undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Participants (n = 70) were randomized to an exercise intervention (IG: resistance, endurance, and flexibility training) or a non-exercise control group (CG: mental and relaxation training). Pre- (prior hospital admission; T0) and post- (day of discharge; T1) measurements included maximal isometric knee extension streng...
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