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Helplessness in Early Childhood: The Role of Contingent Worth.

Published on Dec 1, 1995in Child Development5.02
· DOI :10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00961.x
Karen Klein Burhans1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Abstract
This article presents an expanded view of the bases of helpless reactions to failure. This view stems from recent findings of helplessness in young children. Previous formulations have stressed the attainment of invariant trait conceptions as a necessary condition for helplessness to occur and have suggested that children are relatively invulnerable to helplessness prior to this attainment. We review a series of studies documenting that key aspects of helplessness are present in preschool and early elementary school children (ages 4–7). We then propose a preliminary model in which (a) a general conception of self and (b) the notion of this self as an object of contingent worth are sufficient conditions for helplessness. We integrate this view with Dweck and Leggett's model of helplessness in older individuals, in which more differentiated trait conceptions play an important role.
  • References (40)
  • Citations (157)
References40
Newest
#1Michael Lewis (UMDNJ: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey)H-Index: 77
#2Steven M. Alessandri (Drexel University)H-Index: 17
Last.Margaret Wolan Sullivan (UMDNJ: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey)H-Index: 29
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#1Gail D. Heyman (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 28
#2Carol S. Dweck (Columbia University)H-Index: 76
Last.Kathleen M. Cain (Gettysburg College)H-Index: 5
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#1Deborah Stipek (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 49
#2J. Heidi Gralinski (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 5
Last.Claire B. Kopp (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 19
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Cited By157
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#1Katherine Muenks (IU: Indiana University)H-Index: 2
#2Allan Wigfield (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 60
Last.Jacquelynne S. Eccles (UCI: University of California, Irvine)H-Index: 107
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#1Hika Kuroshima (Kyoto University)H-Index: 15
#2Kazuo Fujita (Kyoto University)H-Index: 31
#1Jan N. Hughes (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 40
#2Qian Cao (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 3
Last.Carissa Cerda (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 3
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#1Jan N. Hughes (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 40
#2Stephen G. West (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 65
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#1Andrei Cimpian (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 20
#2Matthew D. Hammond (Victoria University of Wellington)H-Index: 11
Last.Grace Corry (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 1
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