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Double no-till and permanent raised beds in maize-wheat rotation of north-western Indo-Gangetic plains of India: Effects on crop yields, water productivity, profitability and soil physical properties

Published on Aug 1, 2013in Field Crops Research3.87
· DOI :10.1016/j.fcr.2013.04.024
M.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 3 AuthorsYadvinder-Singh3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract Excessive pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high water requirement of flooded rice crop and intensive tillage have threatened the sustainability of irrigated rice–wheat system (RWS) in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of South Asia. Replacement of rice with less water requiring crops such as maize in the RWS and identification of effective strategies for alternate tillage systems will promote sustainable cropping systems in the IGP. To this effect a 3-year field experiment was established with annual maize–wheat rotation in the north-western IGP of India to evaluate the effect of 3 tillage systems (conventional flat, CTF; no-till flat, NTF; permanent raised beds, NTB) on crop production, water use efficiency, economic profitability and soil physical quality. Grain yield of maize was highest (8.2–73.4%) under NTB followed by NTF and CTF across the years. Wheat yield was significantly higher under NTF during the 1st year while tillage practices had non-significant effect in the succeeding two years. On average, maize planted on NTB recorded about 11% lower water use and 16% higher water use efficiency compared to CT. The NTB and NTF required 24.7% and 10.8% less irrigation water than CTF system, respectively with 11.5% higher system productivity and demonstrated higher water productivity. The NTB and NTF systems provided similar net returns (averaged over 3 years) in maize–wheat system (MWS), which were US$ 281 ha −1 higher compared to CTF system. The CTF system had higher bulk density and penetration resistance in 10–15 and 15–20 cm soil layers due to compaction caused by the repeated tillage. The steady-state infiltration rate and soil aggregation (>0.25 mm) were higher under NTB and NTF and lower in the CTF system. Similarly, mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates was higher under NTF and NTB compared to CTF. The study reveals that NTB and NTF systems could be more viable options for MWS in order to save input costs and enhance profitability; however, the long-term effects of these alternative technologies need to be studied under varying agro-ecologies.
  • References (27)
  • Citations (57)
Cite
References27
Newest
Published on Feb 1, 2013in Field Crops Research3.87
Vivak Kumar4
Estimated H-index: 4
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Y.S. Saharawat9
Estimated H-index: 9
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
+ 4 AuthorsM.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
Abstract Conservation agriculture (CA) based crop management technologies specially zero- or minimum-tillage are being rapidly adopted by the farmers in intensively cultivated wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems of South Asia. Farmers use these tillage options considering them best as per their wisdom. However, scanty information is available on relative energy and economic efficacy of different tillage and seeding implements being used by the farmers for wheat production in the Ind...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences0.25
Ram Singh12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Erenstein Olaf1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsM.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
The bread and rice baskets of South Asia feeding 20% of world population are showing stalled production due to fatigued natural resource bases. The present survey assesses the constraints in adoption of integrated crop and resource management practices in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) systems of IndoGangetic plains. The research and developmental activities have a positive impact on resource-conserving technology (RCT) explain first then use RCT use rat...
Y.S. Saharawat9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
J. K. Ladha60
Estimated H-index: 60
+ 3 AuthorsM.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
The Rice-wheat (RW) cropping system is one of the major agricultural production systems in four IndoGangetic Plains (IGP) countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal of South Asia covering about 32% of the total rice area and 42% of the total wheat area. The excessive utilization of natural resource bases and changing climate are leading to the negative yield trend and plateauing of Rice-wheat (RW) system productivity. The conservation agriculture based efficient and environmental friendly ...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Indian Journal of Agronomy
A. R. Sharma5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
M.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
+ 2 AuthorsR. K. Singh2
Estimated H-index: 2
Conservation agriculture (CA) technologies involve minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover through crop residues or cover crops, and crop rotations for achieving higher productivity. Globally, CA systems are being adopted on 125 M ha and further expanding rapidly due to its potential benefits not only for crop productivity and farm profitability but more particularly in arresting land degradation and addressing emerging challenges of water and climate change. In India, efforts to develop,...
Published on Jan 1, 2011in American Journal of Plant Sciences
M. L. Jat2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CGIAR),
Raj K. Gupta28
Estimated H-index: 28
+ 1 AuthorsR. Khosla21
Estimated H-index: 21
Stagnating yield and declining input use efficiency in irrigated wheat of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) coupled with diminishing availability of water for agriculture is a major concern of food security in South Asia. The objective of our study was to establish an understanding of how wheat yield and input use efficiency can be improved and how land leveling and crop establishment practices can be modified to be more efficient in water use through layering of precisionconservation crop managemen...
Published on Jan 1, 2011in Soil Science Society of America Journal2.00
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute),
J. K. Ladha60
Estimated H-index: 60
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
+ 3 AuthorsPradeep K. Sharma1
Estimated H-index: 1
M. L. Jat2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CGIAR),
Y.S. Saharawat8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Raj K. Gupta28
Estimated H-index: 28
In past, green revolution has paid dividends through impressive agricultural growth, which helped to keep balance between demand and supply in the past four decades. But, the real challenges have surfaced in the recent years with everincreasing food demand due to burgeoning populations, degradation of natural resources and changing climatic conditions. The current food crisis witnessed a dramatic increase in world food prices, causing political and economical instability and social unrest in bot...
Published on Jan 1, 2011in Agronomy Journal1.80
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute),
J. K. Ladha60
Estimated H-index: 60
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
+ 5 AuthorsH. Pathak44
Estimated H-index: 44
Rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the major cropping system occupying 13.5 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia. Conventional-tillage practices are resource and cost intensive. A 7-yr study evaluated six treatments (T) involving three tillage methods and two rice establishment methods on crop yield, water productivity, and economic profitability in a rice-wheat rotation. Average rice yields in the conventional practice of puddling and transplanting without (T...
Published on Apr 1, 2010in Field Crops Research3.87
Y.S. Saharawat9
Estimated H-index: 9
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute),
Bhagat Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsV. Kumar4
Estimated H-index: 4
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
Abstract The rice–wheat rotation covering 13.5 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is vital for food security. Its sustainability is at risk as the current production practices are inadequate resulting in high cost of cultivation and inefficient use of inputs (i.e. water, labor and energy). In a field study, we evaluated resource conserving and cost-saving alternative tillage and crop establishment options with an aim to improve system productivity and efficiency. Treatments included transpla...
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Advances in Agronomy3.60
E. Humphreys16
Estimated H-index: 16
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute),
S. S. Kukal21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 4 AuthorsRamesh Kumar Sharma17
Estimated H-index: 17
Abstract Increasing the productivity of the rice–wheat (RW) system in north-west India is critical for the food security of India. However, yields are stagnating or declining, and the rate of groundwater use is not sustainable. Many improved technologies are under development for RW systems, with multiple objectives including increased production, improved soil fertility, greater input use efficiency, reduced environmental pollution, and higher profitability for farmers. There are large reductio...
Cited By57
Newest
Published on Sep 17, 2019in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science1.68
Opinder Singh Sandhu (PAU: Punjab Agricultural University), Rajeev Gupta6
Estimated H-index: 6
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 3 AuthorsH.S. Sidhu4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
ABSTRACTInformation on the effect of N management on crop yields and N use efficiency (NUE) under furrow irrigations is scarce for conservation agriculture (CA) based annual maize-wheat (MW) system...
Published on Sep 10, 2019in Experimental Agriculture2.09
P. K. Ghosh5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Kali Krishna Hazra2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 5 AuthorsS. S. Singh2
Estimated H-index: 2
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Plant Science3.79
Christopher Vincent5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Diane L. Rowland11
Estimated H-index: 11
+ 3 AuthorsB.A. Zurweller2
Estimated H-index: 2
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Agricultural Systems4.13
M. Devkota6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
K.P. Devkota4
Estimated H-index: 4
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
+ 1 AuthorsAndrew J. McDonald8
Estimated H-index: 8
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Abstract The rice-wheat rotation is the dominant cropping pattern in the Terai ‘food basket’ of Nepal. Current production practices require significant labor, water, and energy which erode profitability and, hence, incentives for intensification. Dry direct seeded rice (DSR) and zero tillage wheat (ZTW) have been widely tested on experiment stations as alternative establishment technologies in South Asia. However, adoption at the farm level is low, perhaps in part due to the absence of systemati...
Published on Jun 1, 2019
P. C. Sharma3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute),
P. C. Sharma (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)+ 3 AuthorsAndrew M. McDonald9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
An experiment was conducted with three managements varied in tillage, crop establishments, residue, fertilizer, water to evaluate crop behaviour, irrigation water use, crop productivity and profitability of crops in an individual and in system mode. Three management systems were conventional system [TPR (transplanted rice)–CTW (conventional-till wheat)], partial CA [TPR–ZTW (zero–till wheat)] and full CA [ZTDSR (ZT direct seeded rice)–ZTW]. Rice plant growth (shoot and root) behaves similarly in...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management3.54
O.S. Sandhu (PAU: Punjab Agricultural University), Ritu Gupta2
Estimated H-index: 2
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 3 AuthorsYadvinder-Singh27
Estimated H-index: 27
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
Abstract The traditional flood irrigation system has led to overexploitation of ground water and low nitrogen (N) use efficiency. In north-western India, maize-based systems with lower irrigation requirement are being advocated as an alternate to rice-based systems to address the issues of declining water table. Bed planting of crops, straw mulching and drip irrigation are known to save precious irrigation water, and improve N use efficiency and grain yields. To this effect a two-year field expe...
Published on Apr 5, 2019in Soil Use and Management1.96
Vivak Kumar4
Estimated H-index: 4
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 12 AuthorsLalit Kumar34
Estimated H-index: 34
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment3.95
Gulab Singh Yadav6
Estimated H-index: 6
(OSU: Ohio State University),
Anup Das13
Estimated H-index: 13
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
+ 5 AuthorsRaghavendra Singh5
Estimated H-index: 5
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
Abstract Decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) and low biomass production in sloping uplands are of growing concern for sustainable agriculture worldwide. This concern is in general in the Eastern Himalayan regions (EHR) of India in particular. A field experiment was conducted with the objectives to generate additional biomass and sequester more C in coarse-textured sloping lands. This experiment is done for four consecutive years in the EHR, India. The rice ( Oryza sativa L.)–rapeseed ( Brassica...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Field Crops Research3.87
S.L. Jat4
Estimated H-index: 4
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research),
C.M. Parihar4
Estimated H-index: 4
(IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute)
+ 5 AuthorsM.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Abstract Under the present scenario of resource degradation, shortage of water & labour, growing production cost, falling water tables as well as farm profitability and climate-change; the sustainability of traditional rice-wheat (RW) system became a major challenge in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Therefore, to address these issues in India’s, north-western IGP, RW system need to be diversified with conservation agriculture (CA) based profitable and sustainable systems. Full CA based crop product...
Published on Mar 21, 2019in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science1.68
Anoop Kumar Dixit1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute),
Rajiv Kumar Agrawal1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute)
+ 6 AuthorsDana Ram Palsaniya2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute)
ABSTRACTTillage is an important agricultural operation which influences soil properties, crop yield and environment. Nine combinations of three tillage practices including conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and zero tillage (ZT) were evaluated in fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) + cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) – wheat (Triticum durum) cropping system for 5 years (2009–2014) on clay loam soil under limited irrigation. Continuous ZT practices significantly improved surface soil organic c...
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