Match!

Double no-till and permanent raised beds in maize-wheat rotation of north-western Indo-Gangetic plains of India: Effects on crop yields, water productivity, profitability and soil physical properties

Published on Aug 1, 2013in Field Crops Research3.868
· DOI :10.1016/j.fcr.2013.04.024
Mangi L. Jat26
Estimated H-index: 26
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Mahesh K. Gathala19
Estimated H-index: 19
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 3 AuthorsYadvinder-Singh3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Sources
Abstract
a b s t r a c t Excessive pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high water requirement of flooded rice crop and intensive tillage have threatened the sustainability of irrigated rice-wheat system (RWS) in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of South Asia. Replacement of rice with less water requiring crops such as maize in the RWS and identification of effective strategies for alternate tillage systems will promote sustainable cropping systems in the IGP. To this effect a 3-year field experiment was established with annual maize-wheat rotation in the north-western IGP of India to evaluate the effect of 3 tillage sys- tems (conventional flat, CTF; no-till flat, NTF; permanent raised beds, NTB) on crop production, water use efficiency, economic profitability and soil physical quality. Grain yield of maize was highest (8.2-73.4%) under NTB followed by NTF and CTF across the years. Wheat yield was significantly higher under NTF during the 1st year while tillage practices had non-significant effect in the succeeding two years. On average, maize planted on NTB recorded about 11% lower water use and 16% higher water use efficiency compared to CT. The NTB and NTF required 24.7% and 10.8% less irrigation water than CTF system, respec- tively with 11.5% higher system productivity and demonstrated higher water productivity. The NTB and NTF systems provided similar net returns (averaged over 3 years) in maize-wheat system (MWS), which were US$ 281 ha −1 higher compared to CTF system. The CTF system had higher bulk density and penetra- tion resistance in 10-15 and 15-20 cm soil layers due to compaction caused by the repeated tillage. The steady-state infiltration rate and soil aggregation (>0.25 mm) were higher under NTB and NTF and lower in the CTF system. Similarly, mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates was higher under NTF and NTB compared to CTF. The study reveals that NTB and NTF systems could be more viable options for MWS in order to save input costs and enhance profitability; however, the long-term effects of these alternative technologies need to be studied under varying agro-ecologies.
  • References (29)
  • Citations (62)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
112 Citations
100 Citations
116 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References29
Newest
#1Vivak Kumar (H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)H-Index: 4
#2Y.S. Saharawat (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 18
Last. Mangi L. JatH-Index: 26
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Conservation agriculture (CA) based crop management technologies specially zero- or minimum-tillage are being rapidly adopted by the farmers in intensively cultivated wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems of South Asia. Farmers use these tillage options considering them best as per their wisdom. However, scanty information is available on relative energy and economic efficacy of different tillage and seeding implements being used by the farmers for wheat production in the Ind...
55 CitationsSource
The Rice-wheat (RW) cropping system is one of the major agricultural production systems in four IndoGangetic Plains (IGP) countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal of South Asia covering about 32% of the total rice area and 42% of the total wheat area. The excessive utilization of natural resource bases and changing climate are leading to the negative yield trend and plateauing of Rice-wheat (RW) system productivity. The conservation agriculture based efficient and environmental friendly ...
33 CitationsSource
#1Ram SinghH-Index: 9
#2Erenstein OlafH-Index: 1
Last. Mangi L. JatH-Index: 26
view all 5 authors...
The bread and rice baskets of South Asia feeding 20% of world population are showing stalled production due to fatigued natural resource bases. The present survey assesses the constraints in adoption of integrated crop and resource management practices in rice (Oryza Sativa L.) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) systems of IndoGangetic plains. The research and developmental activities have a positive impact on resource-conserving technology (RCT) explain first then use RCT use rat...
8 Citations
#1A. R. SharmaH-Index: 4
#2Mangi L. JatH-Index: 26
Last. R. P. SinghH-Index: 5
view all 5 authors...
Conservation agriculture (CA) technologies involve minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover through crop residues or cover crops, and crop rotations for achieving higher productivity. Globally, CA systems are being adopted on 125 M ha and further expanding rapidly due to its potential benefits not only for crop productivity and farm profitability but more particularly in arresting land degradation and addressing emerging challenges of water and climate change. In India, efforts to develop,...
22 Citations
#1Mangi L. Jat (CGIAR)H-Index: 26
#2Y.S. SaharawatH-Index: 18
Last. Raj K. GuptaH-Index: 29
view all 3 authors...
In past, green revolution has paid dividends through impressive agricultural growth, which helped to keep balance between demand and supply in the past four decades. But, the real challenges have surfaced in the recent years with everincreasing food demand due to burgeoning populations, degradation of natural resources and changing climatic conditions. The current food crisis witnessed a dramatic increase in world food prices, causing political and economical instability and social unrest in bot...
26 Citations
#1Mangi L. Jat (CGIAR)H-Index: 26
#2Raj K. GuptaH-Index: 29
Last. Raj KhoslaH-Index: 22
view all 4 authors...
Stagnating yield and declining input use efficiency in irrigated wheat of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) coupled with diminishing availability of water for agriculture is a major concern of food security in South Asia. The objective of our study was to establish an understanding of how wheat yield and input use efficiency can be improved and how land leveling and crop establishment practices can be modified to be more efficient in water use through layering of precisionconservation crop managemen...
31 CitationsSource
#1Mahesh K. Gathala (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 19
#2Jagdish K. Ladha (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 66
Last. Pradeep K. SharmaH-Index: 8
view all 6 authors...
112 CitationsSource
#1Mahesh K. Gathala (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 19
#2Jagdish K. Ladha (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 66
Last. Himanshu PathakH-Index: 45
view all 8 authors...
Rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the major cropping system occupying 13.5 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia. Conventional-tillage practices are resource and cost intensive. A 7-yr study evaluated six treatments (T) involving three tillage methods and two rice establishment methods on crop yield, water productivity, and economic profitability in a rice-wheat rotation. Average rice yields in the conventional practice of puddling and transplanting without (T...
86 CitationsSource
#1Y.S. Saharawat (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 18
#2Bhagat SinghH-Index: 1
Last. V. Kumar (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 6
view all 7 authors...
Abstract The rice–wheat rotation covering 13.5 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is vital for food security. Its sustainability is at risk as the current production practices are inadequate resulting in high cost of cultivation and inefficient use of inputs (i.e. water, labor and energy). In a field study, we evaluated resource conserving and cost-saving alternative tillage and crop establishment options with an aim to improve system productivity and efficiency. Treatments included transpla...
116 CitationsSource
#1Elizabeth Humphreys (IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)H-Index: 22
#2Surinder S. Kukal (PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)H-Index: 22
Last. Raj K. SharmaH-Index: 23
view all 7 authors...
Increasing the productivity of the rice–wheat (RW) system in north-west India is critical for the food security of India. However, yields are stagnating or declining, and the rate of groundwater use is not sustainable. Many improved technologies are under development for RW systems, with multiple objectives including increased production, improved soil fertility, greater input use efficiency, reduced environmental pollution, and higher profitability for farmers. There are large reductions in irr...
126 CitationsSource
Cited By62
Newest
#1J.K. Baghel (IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute)
#2T.K. Das (IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute)H-Index: 3
Last. Rishi Raj (IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute)H-Index: 2
view all 8 authors...
Abstract The transplanted puddled rice (TPR) followed by (∼fb) conventional till wheat (CTW) system (TPR-CTW) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India is the most remunerative cropping system, serving as the backbone of food security of India. Its sustainability, however, is threatened due to degradation/ scarcity of resources (soil, water, fuel/energy, labour), low inputs-use efficiencies, insurgence/resistance of new weeds/pests, and high pesticides use, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions...
Source
#1T.K. DasH-Index: 3
#2C. P. Nath (Indian Institute of Pulses Research)H-Index: 4
view all 14 authors...
Abstract Developing suitable crop rotations and crop establishment practices is an important mechanism that can enhance factor productivity and sustainability of an agro-ecosystem. However, the impact of Conservation Agriculture (CA) on alternate crop rotation of the most-dominant but tillage- and input-intensive rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol) rotation of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India is not elaborately studied. Hence, we evaluated the effect o...
Source
#1Hanuman S. Jat (CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)H-Index: 10
#2R.D. JatH-Index: 1
Last. Mangi L. Jat (CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)H-Index: 26
view all 8 authors...
Abstract In the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia, the triple challenges of diminishing farm profitability, deteriorating natural resources and energy deficits threaten conventional agricultural sustainability. This threat is intensified by the open field burning of crop residues that not only squander an indirect renewable source of energy but also impair the soil and environment quality. The crop residues can be used as organic manure by retaining the residues as mulch in the field. After a l...
Source
In southern Iran, intensive tillage operations and residue removal increased soil compaction, which reduces soil porosity, crop development and yield. While conservation farming combined with crop ...
Source
In the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, the quadruple challenges of deteriorating soil quality, declining groundwater, energy shortages, and diminishing farm profitability threaten sustainability of conventional till (CT)-based cereal production systems. A 5-year study was conducted to evaluate the effect of conservation agriculture (CA)-based management (tillage, crop establishment, residue management, and system intensification through mungbean integration) on energy budget, water productiv...
Source
#1Xuan YangH-Index: 2
#2Zhou Li (Lanzhou University)H-Index: 2
Last. Yuying Shen (Lanzhou University)H-Index: 10
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Agriculture in the semiarid region is undergoing radical changes driven by global warming and increasing incidences of extreme weather events. Predicting and evaluating the responses of crop yield and water use patterns of rainfed cropping systems according to future temperature and precipitation changes could provide important information regarding adoption of climate-smart farming systems that could offer great resilience and sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate...
Source
#1Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal (H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)
#2Imran Khan (H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)H-Index: 11
Last. Muhammad Farooq (Sultan Qaboos University)H-Index: 48
view all 4 authors...
AbstractIn this two-year field study, influence of seed size on the growth and performance of wheat sown under different sowing methods was evaluated. The experiment comprised of three seed size cl...
Source
#1P. K. GhoshH-Index: 6
#2K. K. HazraH-Index: 4
Last. S. S. SinghH-Index: 2
view all 8 authors...
Sustainability of cereal-based cropping systems remains crucial for food security in South Asia. However, productivity of cereal–cereal rotations has declined in the long run, demonstrating the need for a sustainable alternative. Base crop, that is, common crop in different crop rotations, productivity could be used as a sustainability indicator for the assessment of different long-term crop rotations. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of grain legume inclusion in lowland rice–wheat (R-W) ...
Source
Last. Sushil Kumar (Central Arid Zone Research Institute)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
In rice-based cropping system, intensive tillage operations, which consume a huge amount of energy in the form of fuel and labor, are carried out after harvesting of rice for growing the next crop. Modification in tillage practices may not only reduce energy consumption but also could make the system more dynamic and efficient. The present study involving four tillage practices and six different rabi crops was undertaken in strip plot design with three replications to understand the effect of ti...
Source
#2Petra SchmitterH-Index: 11
Last. Seifu A. TilahunH-Index: 14
view all 6 authors...
Water resources in sub-Saharan Africa are more overstressed than in many other regions of the world. Experiments on commercial farms have shown that conservation agriculture (CA) can save water and improve the soil. Nevertheless, its benefits on smallholder irrigated farms have not been adequately investigated, particularly in dry monsoon phase in the Ethiopian highlands. We investigated the effect of conservation agriculture (grass mulch cover and no-tillage) on water-saving on smallholder farm...
Source