Match!

The Essential Oil Composition and Chemotaxonomical Appraisal of South African Pelargoniums (Geraniaceae)

Published on Jan 1, 2006in Journal of Essential Oil Research1.233
· DOI :10.1080/10412905.2006.12067128
Jacqueline Y. Y. Lalli3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of the Witwatersrand),
Alvaro Viljoen40
Estimated H-index: 40
(TUT: Tshwane University of Technology)
+ 3 AuthorsTemel Özek24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Anadolu University)
Abstract
A plethora of information is available on the essential oil composition of commercially grown Pelargoniums namely P. capitatum, P. graveolens and P. radens and their hybrids, while only a few chemical investigations have been carried out on the other aromatic Pelargonium species indigenous to South Africa. The hydrodistilled leaf oils of 13 South African Pelargonium species of the genus Pelargonium (family Geraniaceae) were analyzed by means of GC and GC/MS and a total of 315 compounds were identified. The oil data was chemotaxonomically informa tive confirming taxonomic relationships i.e. between P. graveolens and P. radens, P. papilionaceum and P. vitifolium and between P. panduriforme and P. quercifolium. The oil compositions of P. citronellum, P. papilionaceum and P. vitifolium were different with respect to those of the other analyzed species in this study. Geranic acid was the most abundant oil constituent (36.0%) in P. citronellum (provenance NBG), which was the only species in which neral (17.4%) and geranial (27.2%) were detected. Citronellic acid dominated in the oils of P. papilionaceum (provenance NBG) and P. vitifolium (provenance SBG), occurring in amounts of 96.2% and 74.7%, respectively. The major monoterpene identified in P. radens (provenance NBG) and in the samples of P. graveolens (provenances SBG and WSBG) was isomenthone (84.5%, 65.8% and 83.3%, respectively). The P. tomentosum oil samples produced an essential oil rich in menthone (36.1-41.1%) and isomenthone (49.3-56.6%). The latter monoterpenic ketone was responsible for the chemical affinity demonstrated among P. graveolens, P. radens and P. tomentosum. p-Cymene was the principle component (37.6-45.4%) in both samples of P. panduriforme. It was also the major compound (54.9%) in P. quercifolium (provenance WSBG) followed by lesser amounts of viridiflorol (13.0%) and spathulenol (5.9%). Pelargonium quercifolium (provenance SBG) and P. capitatum (provenance WSBG) were characterized by a high viridiflorol content (24.0-36.6%). Pelargonium glutinosum (provenance SBG) was closely associated with the latter species; its oil was typified by oxygenated sesquiterpenes namely caryophyllene oxide (6.3%), spathulenol (6.9%) and viridiflorol (8.9%). Citronellyl formate (31.1%), citronellol (9.9%) and furopelargone B (6.1%) were most abundant in P. capitatum (provenance Strand). Pelargonium hispidum oil (provenance SBG) was characterized by decanoic acid (47.0%) and 2-decenoic acid (31.3%). Pelargonium scabrum produced an oil rich in 14-hydroxy-β-caryophyllene (27.9%). Pelargonium scabrum was associated with P. betulinum (provenance NBG) which was characterized by the oxygenated sesquiterpene T-cadinol (18.9%). Key Word Index Pelargonium betulinum, Pelargonium capitatum, Pelargonium citronellum, Pelargonium glutinosum, Pelargonium graveolens, Pelargonium hispidum, Pelargonium panduriforme, Pelargonium papilionaceum, Pelargonium quercifolium, Pelargonium radens, Pelargonium scabrum, Pelargonium tomentosum, Pelargonium vitifolium, Geraniaceae, essential oil composition, p-cymene, menthone, isomenthone, citronellyl formate, neral, geranial, viridiflorol, T-cadinol, citronellic acid, decanoic acid, geranic acid.
  • References (24)
  • Citations (15)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
8,529 Citations
21 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References24
Newest
#1Freek T. Bakker (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 29
#2Alastair Culham (University of Reading)H-Index: 27
Last. Mary Gibby (RBGE: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh)H-Index: 22
view all 5 authors...
Phylogenetic hypotheses for the largely South African genus Pelargonium L'Her. (Geraniaceae) were derived based on DNA sequence data from nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial encoded regions. The datasets were unequally represented and comprised cpDNA trnL-F sequences for 152 taxa, nrDNA ITS sequences for 55 taxa, and mtDNA nad1 b/c exons for 51 taxa. Phylogenetic hypotheses derived from the separate three datasets were overall congruent. A single hypothesis synthesising the information in the...
65 CitationsSource
Abstract The chemical constituents of the essential oil Pelargonium graveolens leaves were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thirty compounds accounting for 99.1% of the oil were identified. The main components identified were citronellol (33.6%), geraniol (26.8%), linalool (10.5%), citronellyl formate (9.7%) and p -menthone (6.0%).
25 CitationsSource
#1Diana M. MillerH-Index: 1
15 CitationsSource
#1Juan M. Castro (University of Jaén)H-Index: 3
#2Sofía Salido (University of Jaén)H-Index: 20
Last. Adolfo Sánchez (University of Jaén)H-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
A synthesis of the valuable amber-type odorant Ambrox® from labdanolic acid (main diterpenoid of the acid fraction of non-polar extracts of Cistus ladaniferus L.) is reported. The conversion is based on (a) the α,β-dehydrogenation of methyl labdanolate using an organoselenium reagent, (b) subsequent oxidative degradations of the side chain, and (c) final acid-promoted cyclization of the resulting tetranorlabdan-8α,12-diol. The influence of the temperature and solvent in the cyclization of the di...
36 CitationsSource
#1Marjon G Bolster (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 4
#2Ben J. M. Jansen (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 17
Last. Groot de Ae (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 29
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Iododecarboxylation of labdanolic acid ( 1 ), followed by dehydrohalogenation led to alkenes 4 and 12 . Both compounds were converted into (1 R ,2 R ,4a S ,8a S )-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyldecahydro-2-naphthalenol ( 8 ), which was transformed via cyclization into (−)-Ambrox ® ( 9 ).
25 CitationsSource
#1Zdenka KaloderaH-Index: 7
#2Nikola BlazevicH-Index: 7
Last. Miroslav VolenecH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
The content and composition of essential oil in fresh leaves of Pelargonium radula (Cav.) L'Herit (Geraniaceae) was investigated. Essential oil was separated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS during the whole vegetative cycle of the plant. Essential oil largely consisted of cyclic monoterpenes with oxygen (65.3-75.0%) and their oxides and esters (11.2-19.0%). The main component of essential oil was geraniol (40.5-50.5%). Other important monoterpenes found include citronellol, i-m...
4 Citations
#1M. Lis-Balchin (LSBU: London South Bank University)H-Index: 17
#2G. Roth (University of Vienna)H-Index: 1
Abstract The leaf oils of the leaves of two Pelargonium species, P. papilionaceum L. L'Herit. and P. vitifolium L. L'Herit. (Geraniaceae) and a cultivar ‘Sweet Rosina,’ were found to contain citronellic acid, ranging from 27.9% to 89.3%. The essential oils were obtained by both steam distillation and using solvent extraction in both hexane and petroleum spirit and the citronellic acid was identified by comparison with a standard using GC and also GC/MS. The presence of citronellic acid has not b...
7 CitationsSource
#1Peter Weyerstahl (Technical University of Berlin)H-Index: 24
#2Helga Marschall (Technical University of Berlin)H-Index: 22
Last. Horst SurburgH-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
Commercial Labdanum oil contains more than 300 constituents. 186 compounds (154 from the neutral part, 32 from the acidic part), representing about 95% of the oil, were identified mainly by their NMR spectra. Typical for the Labdanum oil in the C15 to C20 region are aromadendrane (23%), cadinane (9%) and labdane (7%) derivatives, mostly oxidized. The main constituents in this region are ledene (92, 9.3%), allo-aromadendrene (86, 1.5%), 1,5-cis-aromadendr-9-ene (91, 1.4%), viridiflorol (112, 4.3%...
58 CitationsSource
#1M. Lis-Balchin (LSBU: London South Bank University)H-Index: 17
#2Stanley G. Deans (SAC: Scottish Agricultural College)H-Index: 34
Last. Stephen L. Hart (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 29
view all 3 authors...
ABSTRACT Geranium oil is one of the most frequently used oils in aromatherapy. However, there is a large and diverse variation in the composition of commercial geranium oil, which depends only partly on its country of origin. The bioactivity of 16 commercial samples of geranium oils was assessed in vitro against 25 different bacteria, 20 Listeria monocytogenes strains and 3 filamentous fungi; the antioxidant and pharmacological effect was also studied and the results correlated against the chemi...
40 CitationsSource
#1A. M. Viljoen (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 2
#2J.J.A. van der Walt (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 14
Last. F.-E. DemameH-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACT Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'Herit. is one of the parent species of the cultivar Rose grown on the Island of Reunion for the production of geranium oil. The aim of the project was to identify chemotypes which could be included in hybridization programs to ennoble the cultivar Rose Forty populations were selected along the coast of South Africa to describe the essential oil composition and identify possible chemotypes in P. capitatum. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on ...
6 CitationsSource
Cited By15
Newest
#1Matthew E. Bergman (U of T: University of Toronto)
#2Angel Chavez (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)
Last. Michael A. Phillips (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
: Pelargonium graveolens is a wild predecessor to rose-scented geranium hybrids prized for their essential oils used as fragrances and flavorings. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here we present metabolic evidence that at least two distinct monoterpene biosynthetic pathways contribute to their volatile profiles; namely, cyclic p-menthanes such as (-)-isomenthone and acyclic monoterpene alcohols such as geraniol and (-)-citronellol and their derivatives (referred to here as cit...
Source
Plants have been used for their aromatic and medicinal purposes for centuries. The genus Pelargonium contains about 250-280 species and cultivated around the world for the production of essential oils and absolutes. Pelargonium species are remarkable for their odour diversity, from fresh, lemon and minty scent, through floral, rose, fruity up to spicy and camphoreous smell as well as many health beneficial properties, that is why their essential oils are widely used in perfume, cosmetic, food an...
1 CitationsSource
#1Bernard Blerot (University of Lyon)H-Index: 2
#2Laure MartinelliH-Index: 1
Last. Frédéric JullienH-Index: 16
view all 12 authors...
Pelargonium genus contains about 280 species among which at least 30 species are odorant. Aromas produced by scented species are remarkably diverse such as rose, mint, lemon, nutmeg, ginger and many others scents. Amongst odorant species, rose-scented pelargoniums, also named pelargoniums rosat, are the most famous hybrids for their production of essential oil (EO), widely used by perfume and cosmetic industries. Although EO composition has been extensively studied, the underlying biosynthetic p...
1 CitationsSource
#1Bernard Blerot (University of Lyon)H-Index: 2
#2Sylvie Baudino (University of Lyon)H-Index: 17
Last. Jean-Claude Caissard (University of Lyon)H-Index: 14
view all 6 authors...
Pelargonium is one of the seven genera belonging to the Geraniaceae family, and includes almost 280 species mainly coming from South Africa. Some of these species have a strong rose scent mostly due to geraniol and citronellol. For a long time, hybrids between P. graveolens or P. radens and P. capitatum, have been used for essential oil (EO) production. Nowadays, EOs of Pelargonium species are produced mainly in China and Egypt. Hybrids are male sterile and propagated through cuttings. Their ada...
4 CitationsSource
#1Eirini Kouloura (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 4
#2Job Tchoumtchoua (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 6
Last. Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 40
view all 4 authors...
Terpenoids constitute one of the most numerous and structurally varied chemical group of natural products (>40,000) broadly abundant in the plant kingdom. Among them, sesquiterpenoids and other related low mass terpenoids encompass a largely studied and widely distributed subgroup. Apart from their essential physiological role in plant organisms, these secondary metabolites demonstrate important physicochemical and biological properties, enabling their exploitation as medicinal, cosmetic, or agr...
1 CitationsSource
#1Mingfu Wang (University of Mississippi)H-Index: 43
Last. Ikhlas A. KhanH-Index: 50
view all 5 authors...
Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain se...
2 Citations
#1Abdel NasserH-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Traditionally, Pelargonium species due to its tannin contents; was used to staunch bleeding, heal wounds, ulcers, uterine hemorrhage, a comparative study was carried out on Pelargonium peltatum L’Herit and Pelargonium x fragrans In order to incorporate these two active extracts into pharmaceutical preparations, they need to be standardized by quantitative means. The total polyphenol contents of the aqueous extract of both plants were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay for estimation the total p...
#1Carmen Formisano (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 23
#2Daniela Rigano (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 25
Last. Felice Senatore (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 35
view all 5 authors...
The hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Nepeta cilicica Boiss. ex Benth., collected in Lebanon in the Horsh Ehden reserve, yielded 0.13% (w/w) of essential oil. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectroscopy analysis enabled the identification of 75 compounds representing 96.8% of the total oil. The most abundant compounds were spathulenol (15.1%), hexadecanoic acid (14%), δ-cadinene (5.5%) and α-copaene (4.5%). On the whole, the oil was constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes (45.9%), among...
3 CitationsSource
#1François X. Garneau (UQAC: Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)H-Index: 4
#2Guy J. Collin (UQAC: Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)H-Index: 12
Last. Javier Bernardo Lopez Arze (Universidad Mayor)H-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
The essential oils of two samples of Ophryosporus piquerioides (D.C.) Benth. ex Baker growing wild in Bolivia were analyzed to determine their chemical composition. These samples were collected at two different periods of the year and although the same components appear in both samples, the relative percentages show an important variation. Davanone and its isomer isodavanone, (E)-nerolidol and caryophyllene oxide are the main components in both samples A and B: 65 and 30%, respectively. Camphor,...
5 CitationsSource
#1François-X. Garneau (UQAC: Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)H-Index: 7
#2Guy J. Collin (UQAC: Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)H-Index: 12
Last. Javier Bernardo Lopez Arze (Universidad Mayor)H-Index: 5
view all 5 authors...
The essential oils of two samples of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth.) O. Berg growing wild in Bolivia were analyzed to determine their chemical composition. These samples were collected at different periods of the year and although the same products appear in the samples, the relative percentages show an important variation. Mono-oxygenated sesquiterpene molecules, among them ledol and (E)-nerolidol, are the main compounds observed in one sample. In another sample, about two-thirds of the obs...
4 CitationsSource