Evolution of the insects

Published on Jan 1, 2005
David A. Grimaldi38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Stockholm University),
Michael S. Engel33
Estimated H-index: 33
Abstract
Section 1. Diversity and Evolution: Introduction Species: their nature and number How many species of insects? Reconstructing evolutionary history Section 2. Fossil Insects: Insect fossilization Dating and ages Major fossil Insect deposits Section 3. Arthropods and the Origin of Insects: Onychophora: the velvet-worms Tardigrada: the water-bears Arthropoda: the jointed animals Hexapoda: the six-legged arthropods Section 4. The insects: Morphology of insects Relationships among the insect orders Section 5. Earliest insects: Archaeognatha: the bristletails Zygentoma: the silverfish +Rhyniognatha Section 6. Insects Take to the Skies: Pterygota, Wings, and flight Ephemeroptera: the mayflies +Palaeodictyopterida: extinct beaked insects Odonatoptera: dragonflies and early relatives Neoptera Section 7. The Polyneopterous Orders: Plecopterida Orthopterida Plecoptera: the stoneflies Embiodea: the webspinners Zoraptera: the Zorapterans Orthoptera: the grasshoppers, crickets, and kin Phasmatodea: the stick- and leaf insects +Titanoptera: the titanic crawlers +Caloneurodea: the Caloneurodeans Dermaptera: the earwigs Grylloblattodea: the ice crawlers Mantophasmatodea: the African rock crawlers Dictyoptera Blattodea: the roaches Citizen roach: the termites Mantodea: the mantises Section 8. The Paraneopteran Orders: Psocoptera: the 'bark'lice Phthiraptera: the true lice Fringe wings: Thysanoptera (thrips) The sucking bugs: Hemiptera Section 9. The Holometabola: problematic fossil orders The origins of complete metamorphosis On wings of lace: Neuropterida Section 10. Coleoptera: early fossils and overview of past diversity Archostemata Adephaga Myxophaga Polyphaga Strepsiptera: the enigmatic order Section 11. Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Other Wasps: The Euhymenoptera and parasitism Aculeata Evolution of insect sociality Section 12. Antliophora: Scorpionflies, Flies, and Fleas: Mecopterida: mecopterans and relatives Siphonaptera: the fleas Evolution of ectoparasites and blood-feeders Diptera: the true flies Section 13. Amphiesmenoptera: The Caddisflies and Lepidoptera: Trichoptera: the caddisflies Lepidoptera: the moths and butterflies Section 14. Insects Become Modern: Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods: The Cretaceous flowering of the world: the Angiosperm Radiations Plant sex and insects: insect pollination Radiations of Phytophagous insects Austral arthropods: remnants of Gondwana? Insects, mass extinctions, and the K/T boundary The tertiary Mammalian radiations Pleistocene dispersal and species lifespans Island faunas Section 15. Epilogue: Why so many insect species? The future Glossary References Index.
  • References (1)
  • Citations (2001)
References1
Published on Dec 1, 2003in Systematic Biology 8.52
Brian M. Wiegmann31
Estimated H-index: 31
(North Carolina State University),
David K. Yeates28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
+ 1 AuthorsHirohisa Kishino39
Estimated H-index: 39
The insect order Diptera, the true flies, contains one of the four largest Mesozoic insect radiations within its suborder Brachycera. Estimates of phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates among the major brachyceran lineages have been problematic or vague because of a lack of consistent evidence and the rarity of well-preserved fossils. Here, we combine new evidence from nucleotide sequence data, morphological reinterpretations, and fossils to improve estimates of brachyceran evolutionary...
140 Citations Source Cite
  • References (1)
  • Citations (2001)
Cited By2001
Published on Dec 21, 2007in Zootaxa 0.93
Penny J. Gullan19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of California, Davis),
Lyn G. Cook16
Estimated H-index: 16
The superfamily Coccoidea contains nearly 8000 species of plant-feeding hemipterans comprising up to 32 families divided traditionally into two informal groups, the archaeococcoids and the neococcoids. The neococcoids form a monophyletic group supported by both morphological and genetic data. In contrast, the monophyly of the archaeococcoids is uncertain and the higher level ranks within it have been controversial, particularly since the late Professor Jan Koteja introduced his multi-family clas...
63 Citations
Published on Sep 13, 2009
David B. Knoester12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Michigan State University),
Philip K. McKinley32
Estimated H-index: 32
(Michigan State University)
In this paper, we present a study in the evolution of cooperative behavior, specifically synchronization, through digital evolution and multilevel selection. In digital evolution, a population of self-replicating computer programs exists in a user-defined computational environment and is subject to instructionlevel mutations and natural selection. Multilevel selection links the survival of the individual to the survival of its group, thus encouraging cooperation. Previous approaches to designing...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 22, 2010in Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 1.70
Kazunori Yoshizawa19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
Charles Lienhard7
Estimated H-index: 7
The taxonomy, fossil record, phylogeny, and systematic placement of the booklouse family Liposcelididae (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’) were reviewed. An apterous specimen from lower Eocene, erroneously identifi ed as Embidopsocus eocenicus Nel et al., 2004 in the literature, is recognized here as an unidentifi ed species of Liposcelis Motschulsky, 1852. It represents the oldest fossil of the genus. Phylogenetic relationships within the family presented in the recent literature were re-analyze...
21 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Developments in sedimentology
Elizabeth Gierlowski-Kordesch11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Ohio University)
Abstract Lacustrine carbonates accumulate in all climates and in any tectonic situation. Their depositional patterns are assessed through a database involving literature representing over 250 lakes and lake basins worldwide. Carbonates and calcium-rich rocks (i.e., basalt or carbonatite) need to be available for weathering in the catchment and subsurface in order to produce carbonate sediments in lakes in the first place. Tectonics and climate control the distribution of carbonates through (1) t...
41 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 27, 2009in Zootaxa 0.93
Scott R. Shaw13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Wyoming),
Simon van Noort18
Estimated H-index: 18
A new species of megalyrid wasp, Dinapsis centralis Shaw and van Noort sp. nov. from the Central African Republic is described and illustrated. The new species is contrasted with other described species of Dinapsis. An online key to Dinapsis species is available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Megalyroidea/Megalyridae/Keys/index.htm. This represents the first record of any megalyrid species from the Central African Republic and the northernmost confirmed distribution of Dinapsis in the Afrotropical r...
2 Citations
Yuichi Oba20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Nagoya University),
Darrin T. Schultz1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Nagoya University)
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 30, 2006in Estudios Geologicos-madrid 0.66
Enrique Peñalver17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
V. García-Gimeno1
Estimated H-index: 1
new species of the fossil genus Otroacizzia Klimaszewski, 1996 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) is described as Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov. on the basis of a female specimen. This species is preserved in mid-Miocene amber from La Toca mines, Dominican Republic. The genus Otroacizzia is the most diverse psylloid genus in Dominican amber, with four known species. The new species differs from the three previously known species by the presence of a subapical dark band in the fore wing from the anterior part o...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 19, 2008in Zootaxa 0.93
Jaime Ortega-Blanco12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Barcelona),
A.P. Rasnitsyn11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Xavier Delclòs17
Estimated H-index: 17
A new species of the family Anaxyelidae (Eosyntexis parva n. sp.) is described. This is the first record of the family from Lower Cretaceous Spanish amber. The specimen is mostly well preserved, except for dorsally. This makes it possible to identify several important details rarely or never observed in compression fossils. Eosyntexis spp. and the closely related genus Cretosyntexis are confined to the Eurasian Lower Cretaceous, whereas the extant monotypic genus Syntexis is restricted to wester...
15 Citations
Published on Apr 20, 2009in Zootaxa 0.93
David A. Grimaldi38
Estimated H-index: 38
(American Museum of Natural History),
Jeffrey M. Cumming9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Antonio Arillo14
Estimated H-index: 14
A new family of eremoneuran Brachycera, the Chimeromyiidae, is proposed for two genera and eight species of a distinctive, monophyletic group of flies in 125–100 myo amber. The new family is related to the Empidoidea and basal Cyclorrhapha. Four new species of Chimeromyia are described: C. pilitibia Grimaldi and Cumming (in Lebanese amber), C. mediobscura Grimaldi and Cumming, C. alava Arillo and Grimaldi (in Spanish amber), and C. burmitica Grimaldi and Cumming (in Burmese amber). A new genus, ...
9 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Advances in Insect Physiology 2.11
José M. C. Ribeiro67
Estimated H-index: 67
,
Bruno Arcà24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Sapienza University of Rome)
Abstract To efficiently blood feed, insects have evolved a salivary concoction that disarms their host's haemostasis, a redundant physiological mechanism that includes blood clotting, platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Because vertebrate haemostasis is complex and redundant, haematophagous insect saliva is also complex and redundant, containing dozens of active compounds. Because this feeding mode evolved independently in several insect orders, the salivary composition among insects of d...
70 Citations Source Cite