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Evolution of the insects

Published on Jan 1, 2005
David A. Grimaldi40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Stockholm University),
Michael S. Engel36
Estimated H-index: 36
Abstract
Section 1. Diversity and Evolution: Introduction Species: their nature and number How many species of insects? Reconstructing evolutionary history Section 2. Fossil Insects: Insect fossilization Dating and ages Major fossil Insect deposits Section 3. Arthropods and the Origin of Insects: Onychophora: the velvet-worms Tardigrada: the water-bears Arthropoda: the jointed animals Hexapoda: the six-legged arthropods Section 4. The insects: Morphology of insects Relationships among the insect orders Section 5. Earliest insects: Archaeognatha: the bristletails Zygentoma: the silverfish +Rhyniognatha Section 6. Insects Take to the Skies: Pterygota, Wings, and flight Ephemeroptera: the mayflies +Palaeodictyopterida: extinct beaked insects Odonatoptera: dragonflies and early relatives Neoptera Section 7. The Polyneopterous Orders: Plecopterida Orthopterida Plecoptera: the stoneflies Embiodea: the webspinners Zoraptera: the Zorapterans Orthoptera: the grasshoppers, crickets, and kin Phasmatodea: the stick- and leaf insects +Titanoptera: the titanic crawlers +Caloneurodea: the Caloneurodeans Dermaptera: the earwigs Grylloblattodea: the ice crawlers Mantophasmatodea: the African rock crawlers Dictyoptera Blattodea: the roaches Citizen roach: the termites Mantodea: the mantises Section 8. The Paraneopteran Orders: Psocoptera: the 'bark'lice Phthiraptera: the true lice Fringe wings: Thysanoptera (thrips) The sucking bugs: Hemiptera Section 9. The Holometabola: problematic fossil orders The origins of complete metamorphosis On wings of lace: Neuropterida Section 10. Coleoptera: early fossils and overview of past diversity Archostemata Adephaga Myxophaga Polyphaga Strepsiptera: the enigmatic order Section 11. Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Other Wasps: The Euhymenoptera and parasitism Aculeata Evolution of insect sociality Section 12. Antliophora: Scorpionflies, Flies, and Fleas: Mecopterida: mecopterans and relatives Siphonaptera: the fleas Evolution of ectoparasites and blood-feeders Diptera: the true flies Section 13. Amphiesmenoptera: The Caddisflies and Lepidoptera: Trichoptera: the caddisflies Lepidoptera: the moths and butterflies Section 14. Insects Become Modern: Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods: The Cretaceous flowering of the world: the Angiosperm Radiations Plant sex and insects: insect pollination Radiations of Phytophagous insects Austral arthropods: remnants of Gondwana? Insects, mass extinctions, and the K/T boundary The tertiary Mammalian radiations Pleistocene dispersal and species lifespans Island faunas Section 15. Epilogue: Why so many insect species? The future Glossary References Index.
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