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Oxysterols: Modulators of Cholesterol Metabolism and Other Processes

Published on Jan 1, 2000in Physiological Reviews24.25
· DOI :10.1152/physrev.2000.80.1.361
George J. Schroepfer28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Rice University)
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Abstract
Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol (oxysterols) present a remarkably diverse profile of biological activities, including effects on sphingolipid metabolism, platelet aggregation, apoptosis, and protein prenylation. The most notable oxysterol activities center around the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, which appears to be controlled in part by a complex series of interactions of oxysterol ligands with various receptors, such as the oxysterol binding protein, the cellular nucleic acid binding protein, the sterol regulatory element binding protein, the LXR nuclear orphan receptors, and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Identification of the endogenous oxysterol ligands and elucidation of their enzymatic origins are topics of active investigation. Except for 24,25-epoxysterols, most oxysterols arise from cholesterol by autoxidation or by specific microsomal or mitochondrial oxidations, usually involving cytochrome P-450 species. Oxysterols are variously metabolized to esters, bile acids, steroid...
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