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Anatomy of funded research in science

Published on Dec 1, 2015in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America9.58
· DOI :10.1073/pnas.1513651112
Athen Ma10
Estimated H-index: 10
(QMUL: Queen Mary University of London),
Raul J. Mondragon11
Estimated H-index: 11
(QMUL: Queen Mary University of London),
Vito Latora54
Estimated H-index: 54
(University of Catania)
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Abstract
Seeking research funding is an essential part of academic life. Funded projects are primarily collaborative in nature through internal and external partnerships, but what role does funding play in the formulation of these partnerships? Here, by examining over 43,000 scientific projects funded over the past three decades by one of the major government research agencies in the world, we characterize how the funding landscape has changed and its impacts on the underlying collaboration networks across different scales. We observed rising inequality in the distribution of funding and that its effect was most noticeable at the institutional level—the leading universities diversified their collaborations and increasingly became the knowledge brokers in the collaboration network. Furthermore, it emerged that these leading universities formed a rich club (i.e., a cohesive core through their close ties) and this reliance among them seemed to be a determining factor for their research success, with the elites in the core overattracting resources but also rewarding in terms of both research breadth and depth. Our results reveal how collaboration networks organize in response to external driving forces, which can have major ramifications on future research strategy and government policy.
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  • References (45)
  • Citations (21)
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References45
Newest
Qing Ke1
Estimated H-index: 1
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington),
Emilio Ferrara31
Estimated H-index: 31
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
+ 1 AuthorsAlessandro Flammini39
Estimated H-index: 39
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
A Sleeping Beauty (SB) in science refers to a paper whose importance is not recognized for several years after publication. Its citation history exhibits a long hibernation period followed by a sudden spike of popularity. Previous studies suggest a relative scarcity of SBs. The reliability of this conclusion is, however, heavily dependent on identification methods based on arbitrary threshold parameters for sleeping time and number of citations, applied to small or monodisciplinary bibliographic...
Published on May 1, 2015in Scientific Reports4.01
Pierre Deville6
Estimated H-index: 6
(NU: Northeastern University),
Dashun Wang14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NU: Northeastern University)
+ 3 AuthorsAlbert-La szlo Baraba si115
Estimated H-index: 115
(NU: Northeastern University)
Changing institutions is an integral part of an academic life. Yet little is known about the mobility patterns of scientists at an institutional level and how these career choices affect scientific outcomes. Here, we examine over 420,000 papers, to track the affiliation information of individual scientists, allowing us to reconstruct their career trajectories over decades. We find that career movements are not only temporally and spatially localized, but also characterized by a high degree of st...
Published on Mar 23, 2015in PLOS ONE2.78
Athen Ma10
Estimated H-index: 10
(QMUL: Queen Mary University of London),
Raul J. Mondragon11
Estimated H-index: 11
(QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)
A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parame...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Science Advances
Aaron Clauset29
Estimated H-index: 29
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Samuel Arbesman9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation),
Daniel B. Larremore14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Harvard University)
The faculty job market plays a fundamental role in shaping research priorities, educational outcomes, and career trajectories among scientists and institutions. However, a quantitative understanding of faculty hiring as a system is lacking. Using a simple technique to extract the institutional prestige ranking that best explains an observed faculty hiring network—who hires whose graduates as faculty—we present and analyze comprehensive placement data on nearly 19,000 regular faculty in three dis...
Published on Dec 10, 2014in PLOS ONE2.78
Giulio Cimini12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Andrea Gabrielli36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
F. Sylos Labini20
Estimated H-index: 20
We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond...
Alexander M. Petersen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca),
Santo Fortunato10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Aalto University)
+ 6 AuthorsNicola Carmine Salerno30
Estimated H-index: 30
(BU: Boston University)
Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication’s citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its centr...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Journal of Complex Networks
Péter Csermely55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Semmelweis University),
András London3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Szeged)
+ 1 AuthorsBrian Uzzi34
Estimated H-index: 34
(NU: Northwestern University)
Recent studies uncovered important core/periphery network structures characterizing complex sets of cooperative and competitive interactions between network nodes, be they proteins, cells, species or humans. Better characterization of the structure, dynamics and function of core/periphery networks is a key step of our understanding cellular functions, species adaptation, social and market changes. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and dynamics of "traditional" core/periphe...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Scientific Reports4.01
Xiaoling Sun4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Jasleen Kaur13
Estimated H-index: 13
+ 2 AuthorsFilippo Menczer52
Estimated H-index: 52
The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitti...
Published on Oct 4, 2013in Science41.04
Dashun Wang14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NU: Northeastern University),
Chaoming Song25
Estimated H-index: 25
(NU: Northeastern University),
Albert-La szlo Baraba si115
Estimated H-index: 115
The lack of predictability of citation-based measures frequently used to gauge impact, from impact factors to short-term citations, raises a fundamental question: Is there long-term predictability in citation patterns? Here, we derive a mechanistic model for the citation dynamics of individual papers, allowing us to collapse the citation histories of papers from different journals and disciplines into a single curve, indicating that all papers tend to follow the same universal temporal pattern. ...
Published on Jun 19, 2013in PLOS ONE2.78
Jean-Michel Fortin2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of O: University of Ottawa),
David J. Currie41
Estimated H-index: 41
(U of O: University of Ottawa)
Agencies that fund scientific research must choose: is it more effective to give large grants to a few elite researchers, or small grants to many researchers? Large grants would be more effective only if scientific impact increases as an accelerating function of grant size. Here, we examine the scientific impact of individual university-based researchers in three disciplines funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). We considered four indices of scientifi...
Cited By21
Newest
Published on Jan 5, 2019in Nature Communications11.88
Oliver E. Williams , Lucas Lacasa16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
Vito Latora54
Estimated H-index: 54
In certain artistic endeavours—such as acting in films and TV, where unemployment rates hover at around 90%—sustained productivity (simply making a living) is probably a better proxy for quantifying success than high impact. Drawing on a worldwide database, here we study the temporal profiles of activity of actors and actresses. We show that the dynamics of job assignment is well described by a “rich-get-richer” mechanism and we find that, while the percentage of a career spent active is unpredi...
Published on Feb 23, 2019in Journal of Complex Networks
Matteo Cinelli (IPN: Instituto Politécnico Nacional)
Rich-club ordering refers to tendency of nodes with a high degree to be more interconnected than expected. In this paper we consider the concept of rich-club ordering when generalized to structural measures different from the node degree and to non-structural measures (i.e. to node metadata). The differences in considering rich-club ordering (RCO) with respect to both structural and non-structural measures is then discussed in terms of employed coefficients and of appropriate null models (link r...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Higher Education3.00
Finn Jørgensen11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Nord University),
Thor-Erik Sandberg Hanssen5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Nord University)
This paper first briefly reviews the worldwide development of the size of the university sector, its research merits and authorities’ use of incentive systems for its academic staff. Then, the paper develops a static model of a researcher’s behaviour, aiming to discuss how different salary reward schemes and teaching obligations influence his or her research merits. Moreover, special focus is placed on discussing the importance of the researcher’s skills and of working in solid academic environm...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Journal of Informetrics3.88
Dengsheng Wu (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences), Lili Yuan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 1 AuthorsJianping Li (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract The inequality in research funding is an important issue, in which the measurement of inequality is the basis. The literature has mostly investigated the inequality in research funding by providing overall values of inequality but has rarely explored this topic through the internal structure of the overall inequality. In this paper, a three-stage nested Theil index is employed to decompose the overall inequality in research funding into the between and within components. Moreover, a dec...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Scientometrics2.77
Yang Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Huajiao Li11
Estimated H-index: 11
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 1 AuthorsXueyong Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences)
Interinstitutional scientific collaboration plays an important role in knowledge production and scientific development. Together with the increasing scale of scientific collaboration, a few institutions that positively participate in interinstitutional scientific collaboration are important in collaboration networks. However, whether becoming an important institution in collaboration networks could be a contributing factor to research success and how these important institutions collaborate are ...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Scientometrics2.77
Fengqing Zhang6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Drexel University),
Erjia Yan19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Drexel University)
+ 1 AuthorsYongjun Zhu6
Estimated H-index: 6
(SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)
This paper examines the impact of NIH funding on research outcomes using data from 108,803 projects funded by NIH between January 2009 and March 2017. We extend the prior knowledge on this topic by incorporating the correlation structure of multiple research outcomes, as well as a comprehensive list of grant-level features capturing information on funding size, gender composition and funding type. Specifically, we utilize partial least squares regression (PLS) to jointly model all three primary ...
Published on Aug 1, 2018in Trends in Ecology and Evolution15.24
Daniel Bearup6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UKC: University of Kent),
Dylan Z. Childs (University of Sheffield), Robert P. Freckleton56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Sheffield)
Restricting application rates is an attractive way for funders to reduce time and money wasted evaluating uncompetitive applications. However, mathematical models show that this could induce chaotic cycles in total application numbers, increasing uncertainty in the funding process. One emergent property is that smaller institutions spend disproportionally more time unfunded.
Thijs Bol10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UvA: University of Amsterdam),
Mathijs de Vaan6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of California, Berkeley),
Arnout van de Rijt11
Estimated H-index: 11
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
A classic thesis is that scientific achievement exhibits a “Matthew effect”: Scientists who have previously been successful are more likely to succeed again, producing increasing distinction. We investigate to what extent the Matthew effect drives the allocation of research funds. To this end, we assembled a dataset containing all review scores and funding decisions of grant proposals submitted by recent PhDs in a €2 billion granting program. Analyses of review scores reveal that early funding s...
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Scientometrics2.77
Erjia Yan19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Drexel University),
Chaojiang Wu3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Drexel University),
Min Song17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Yonsei University)
This paper intends to illuminate the relationship between science funding and citation impact in seven STEMM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine). Using a regression model with Heckman bias correction, we find that funding has a positive, significant association with a paper’s citations in STEMM fields. Further analyses show that this association is magnified by the factors of multiple authorship and multiple institutions. For funded papers in STEM, multi-aut...
Published on Dec 29, 2017
Linton Winder4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Simon Hodge9
Estimated H-index: 9