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Chk1 phosphorylated at serine345 is a predictor of early local recurrence and radio‐resistance in breast cancer

Published on Feb 1, 2016in Molecular Oncology5.962
· DOI :10.1016/j.molonc.2015.09.009
Nouf Alsubhi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Nottingham),
Fiona K. Middleton6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Newcastle University)
+ 12 AuthorsSrinivasan Madhusudan32
Estimated H-index: 32
(University of Nottingham)
Abstract
Abstract Radiation-induced DNA damage activates the DNA damage response (DDR). DDR up-regulation may predict radio-resistance and increase the risk of early local recurrence despite radiotherapy in early stage breast cancers. In 1755 early stage breast cancers, DDR signalling [ATM, ATR, total Ckh1, Chk1 phosphorylated at serine 345 (pChk1), Chk2, p53], base excision repair [PARP1, POLβ, XRCC1, FEN1, SMUG1], non-homologous end joining (Ku70/Ku80, DNA-PKcs) and homologous recombination [RAD51, BRCA1, γH2AX, BLM, WRN, RECQL5, PTEN] protein expression was correlated to time to early local recurrence. Pre-clinically, radio-sensitization by inhibition of Chk1 activation by ATR inhibitor (VE-821) and inhibition of Chk1 (V158411) were investigated in MDA-MB-231 (p53 mutant) and MCF-7 (p53 wild-type) breast cancer cells. In the whole cohort, 208/1755 patients (11.9%) developed local recurrence of which 126 (61%) developed local recurrence within 5 years of initiation of primary therapy. Of the 20 markers tested, only pChk1 and p53 significantly associated with early local recurrence (p value = 0.015 and 0.010, respectively). When analysed together, high cytoplasmic pChk1-nuclear pChk1 (p = 0.039), high cytoplasmic pChk1-p53 (p = 0.004) and high nuclear pChk1-p53 (p = 0.029) co-expression remain significantly linked to early local recurrence. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic pChk1 level independently predicted early local recurrence (p = 0.025). In patients who received adjuvant local radiotherapy (n = 949), p53 (p = 0.014) and high cytoplasmic pChk1-p53 (p = 0.017) remain associated with early local recurrence. Pre-clinically, radio-sensitisation by VE-821 or V158411 was observed in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and was more pronounced in MCF-7 cells. We conclude that pChk1 is a predictive biomarker of radiotherapy resistance and early local recurrence.
  • References (45)
  • Citations (12)
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References45
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#1Arvind Arora (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 12
#2Tarek M. A. Abdel-Fatah (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 17
Last. Srinivasan Madhusudan (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 32
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Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) has key roles in homologous recombination repair, telomere maintenance, and DNA replication. Germ-line mutations in the BLM gene causes Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by premature aging and predisposition to multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The clinicopathologic significance of BLM in sporadic breast cancers is unknown. We investigated BLM mRNA expression in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort ( n = 1,950)...
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#1Hui Tian (Xuzhou Medical College)H-Index: 10
#2Zhen Gao (Xuzhou Medical College)H-Index: 3
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Abstract Genomic stability depends on an efficient DNA damage repair system to keep the chromosomes intact. Unrepaired DNA damage not only causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, but also accumulates genome mutations. DNA damage response (DDR) exhibits a critical function on the protection against human cancer, as indicated by the high predisposition to cancer of individuals with germ-line mutations in DDR genes. However, a defective DNA repair is liked intimately with the unchecked proliferation a...
67 CitationsSource
#1Tarek M. A. Abdel-Fatah (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 17
#2Fiona K. Middleton (Newcastle University)H-Index: 6
Last. Srinivasan Madhusudan (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 32
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Background: ATR-Chk1 signalling network is critical for genomic stability. ATR-Chk1 may be deregulated in breast cancer and have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic significance. Patients and methods: We investigated ATR and phosphorylated CHK1Ser345 protein (pChk1) expression in 1712 breast cancers (Nottingham Tenovus series). ATR and Chk1 mRNA were evaluated in 1950 breast cancers (METABRIC cohort). Pre-clinically, biological consequences of ATR gene knockdown or ATR inhibition by small mol...
33 CitationsSource
#1Tao Chen (Newcastle University)H-Index: 9
#2Fiona K. Middleton (Newcastle University)H-Index: 6
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Abstract Background ATR, which signals DNA damage to S/G2 cell cycle checkpoints and for repair, is an attractive target in cancer therapy. ATR inhibitors are being developed and a pharmacodynamic assay is needed to support clinical studies. Methods Phosphorylation of ATR targets, Chk1 and H2AX, was evaluated in MCF7 and K562 cells, human volunteer PBMCs and whole blood by Western blot, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry after DNA damage. The effect of cell cycle phase, ATR knockdo...
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BRCA1, a key factor in homologous recombination (HR) repair may also regulate base excision repair (BER). Targeting BRCA1-BER deficient cells by blockade of ATM and DNA-PKcs could be a promising strategy in breast cancer. We investigated BRCA1, XRCC1 and pol β protein expression in two cohorts (n = 1602 sporadic and n = 50 germ-line BRCA1 mutated) and mRNA expression in two cohorts (n = 1952 and n = 249). Artificial neural network analysis for BRCA1-DNA repair interacting genes was conducted in ...
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Background Chk1 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials as putative potentiators of cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs. Chk1 inhibitors may exhibit single agent anti-tumor activity in cancers with underlying DNA repair, DNA damage response or DNA replication defects.
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ATM-Chk2 network is critical for genomic stability, and its deregulation may influence breast cancer pathogenesis. We investigated ATM and Chk2 protein levels in two cohorts [cohort 1 (n = 1650) and cohort 2 (n = 252)]. ATM and Chk2 mRNA expression was evaluated in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1950). Low nuclear ATM protein level was significantly associated with aggressive breast cancer including larger tumors, higher tumor grade, higher mitotic i...
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DNA damaging agents such as ionizing radiation or chemotherapy are frequently used in oncology. DNA damage response (DDR)—triggered by radiation-induced double strand breaks—is orchestrated mainly by three Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs): Ataxia teleangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATR). Their activation promotes cell-cycle arrest and facilitates DNA damage repair, resulting in radioresistance. Recently develo...
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