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Neural Reactivity to Emotional Stimuli Prospectively Predicts the Impact of a Natural Disaster on Psychiatric Symptoms in Children

Published on Sep 1, 2016in Biological Psychiatry11.501
· DOI :10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.09.008
Autumn Kujawa21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
Greg Hajcak66
Estimated H-index: 66
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
+ 5 AuthorsDaniel N. Klein73
Estimated H-index: 73
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
Abstract
Abstract Background Natural disasters expose entire communities to stress and trauma, leading to increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. Yet, the majority of exposed individuals are resilient, highlighting the importance of identifying underlying factors that contribute to outcomes. Methods The current study was part of a larger prospective study of children in Long Island, New York ( n = 260). At age 9, children viewed unpleasant and pleasant images while the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects sustained attention toward salient information, was measured. Following the event-related potential assessment, Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in United States history, hit the region. Eight weeks after the hurricane, mothers reported on exposure to hurricane-related stress and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Symptoms were reassessed 8 months after the hurricane. Results The LPP predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms after accounting for prehurricane symptomatology and interacted with stress to predict externalizing symptoms. Among children exposed to higher levels of hurricane-related stress, enhanced neural reactivity to unpleasant images predicted greater externalizing symptoms 8 weeks after the disaster, while greater neural reactivity to pleasant images predicted lower externalizing symptoms. Moreover, interactions between the LPP and stress continued to predict externalizing symptoms 8 months after the hurricane. Conclusions Results indicate that heightened neural reactivity and attention toward unpleasant information, as measured by the LPP, predispose children to psychiatric symptoms when exposed to higher levels of stress related to natural disasters, while greater reactivity to and processing of pleasant information may be a protective factor.
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  • Citations (22)
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References73
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#1William E. Copeland (Duke University)H-Index: 37
#2Dieter Wolke (Warw.: University of Warwick)H-Index: 71
Last. E. Jane Costello (Duke University)H-Index: 76
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Importance Psychiatric problems are among the most common health problems of childhood. Objective To test whether these health problems adversely affect adult functioning even if the problems themselves do not persist. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based study of 1420 participants from 11 predominantly rural counties of North Carolina who were assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times during childhood (9-16 years of age, for a total 6674 observations) for comm...
91 CitationsSource
#1Brady D. Nelson (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 19
#2Greg Perlman (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 13
Last. Roman Kotov (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 38
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38 CitationsSource
#1Brittany C. Speed (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 5
#2Brady D. Nelson (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 19
Last. Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 66
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Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or b...
24 CitationsSource
Exposure to both human-caused and natural disasters is associated with a number of postevent reactions in youth including the experience of symptoms of several mental disorders. There is wide variability in these responses, with some youth having very intense exposure to the disaster and yet showing resilience or even personal growth, while others with low exposure sometimes show intensely negative reactions. Research findings are reviewed in this article to identify biological correlates of ris...
9 CitationsSource
#1Autumn Kujawa (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 21
#2Annmarie MacNamara (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 17
Last. K. Luan Phan (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 54
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Anxiety disorders are characterized by enhanced reactivity to threat, and event-related potentials (ERPs) are useful neural measures of the dynamics of threat processing. In particular, the late positive potential (LPP) is an ERP component that reflects sustained attention towards motivationally salient information. Previous studies in adults suggest that the LPP is enhanced to threatening stimuli in anxiety but blunted in depression; however, very little work has evaluated the LPP to threat in ...
41 CitationsSource
#1Agnes van Minnen (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 24
#2Lori A. Zoellner (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 34
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Prolonged exposure (PE) is an effective psychological treatment for patients who suffer from PTSD. The majority of PTSD patients have comorbid psychiatric disorders, and some clinicians are hesitant to use PE with comorbid patients because they believe that comorbid conditions may worsen during PE. In this article, we reviewed the evidence for this question: what are the effects of PE on comorbid symptoms and associated symptomatic features? We reviewed findings from 18 randomized controlled tri...
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Summary We all experience a host of common life stressors such as the death of a family member, medical illness, and financial uncertainty. While most of us are resilient to such stressors, continuing to function normally, for a subset of individuals, experiencing these stressors increases the likelihood of developing treatment-resistant, chronic psychological problems, including depression and anxiety. It is thus paramount to identify predictive markers of risk, particularly those reflecting fu...
96 CitationsSource
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OBJECTIVE: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit heightened amygdala reactivity and atypical activation patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to negative emotional information. It is unknown whether these aspects of neural function are risk factors for PTSD or consequences of either trauma exposure or onset of the disorder. We had a unique opportunity to investigate this issue following the terrorist attacks at the 2013 Boston Marathon and the ensuin...
58 CitationsSource
#1Autumn KujawaH-Index: 21
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Abstract Depression appears to be characterized by reduced neural reactivity to receipt of reward. Despite evidence of shared etiologies and high rates of comorbidity between depression and anxiety, this abnormality may be relatively specific to depression. However, it is unclear whether children at risk for depression also exhibit abnormal reward responding, and if so, whether risk for anxiety moderates this association. The feedback negativity (FN) is an event-related potential component sensi...
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Natural disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane always threaten human life and societies. A major challenge is technological hazards triggered by such disasters, especially in metropolises and urban areas. Thus, these hazards have been the focus of interest in many countries, and suitable crisis management plans have been made to address them. The purpose of this study was to cluster technological hazards caused by natural disasters in urban areas.,According to literature, a set of 15 ...
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