Cellular sources and inducers of cytokines present in acute wound fluid
Published on May 1, 2011in Wound Repair and Regeneration 2.95
· DOI :10.1111/j.1524-475X.2011.00668.x
Acute wounds contain many biological active molecules, including several cytokines and growth factors. However, the cellular sources of each molecule, as well as the stimuli inducing them, are poorly characterized. We quantified the levels of 27 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in acute wound fluid in a luminex-based assay. The acute wound fluid contained particularly high levels of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as elevated levels of MCP-1, IL-1RA, PDGF, IP-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Surprisingly, the amounts of IL-1β and IL-10 were relatively low. To characterize the cellular sources of these molecules, we analyzed supernatants from monocytes, neutrophils, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells stimulated with pro- and anti inflammatory cytokines, and different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. The different cell types showed overlapping but distinct patterns of production of signal molecules, as well as sensitivity to ligands. Among pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β was the most potent inducer of signal molecule production. Furthermore, keratinocytes and endothelial cells were in particular responsive to the Toll-like receptor-3 ligand poly I:C. New interactions between cytokines and growth factors were revealed, which may have important roles in wound healing, including IL-1β-induced IFN-γ and IL-10-induced VEGF.