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Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent

Published on Jan 1, 1999in Methods in Enzymology1.862
· DOI :10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1
Vernon L. Singleton1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Rudolf Orthofer1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós74
Estimated H-index: 74
Sources
Abstract
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.
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References34
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#2William HorwitzH-Index: 1
#3George W. LatimerH-Index: 1
Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. , Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز
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The tannins from quebracho and leaves of Acioa barteri after purification, and commercially available tannic acid, were stored in buffers of different pH values (6−11) at 0, 20, and 37 °C. The recovery of tannins was monitored at different time intervals (up to 18 h) using Folin−Ciocalteu and butanol−HCl−Fe3+ reagents. The recovery of tannins decreased with increase in time of storage, increase in pH, and increase in temperature. The decrease in the recovery of tannins was accompanied by a decre...
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Abstract Tannins in white wines were determined by reduction of the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, extraction of the phosphomolybdenum blue produced into chloroform in the presence of a tetraalkylammonium salt, and thermal lens spectrometry (TLS). The TLS setup was pumped with a diode-array laser (60 mW, 818 nm), and the thermal lens effect was probed with a He-Ne laser in a crossed-beam configuration. Extraction was quantitative within the range 25-250 ng ml −1 gallic acid. Owing to the low limit of ...
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For evaluation of flavonoid phenols in the low concentration range in white table wines, four colorimetric assays have been compared: (a) reaction with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent before and after precipitation of flavonoids in HCl-methanal (FC); (b) reaction with vanillin (VAN); (c) reaction with 4-(dimethylamino)-cinnamaldehyde (DAC); and (d) a rapid browning test at 60°C in oxidative medium (POM). There was a highly positive correlation between concentration units obtained by FC, VAN, and DAC, wh...
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The properties of a frugal laccase have been exploited to develop two enzyme assays for the phenolic content of natural beverages: first, by monitoring the fall in oxygen tension after addition of enzyme to a diluted juice sample in an end-point batch assay; second, by monitoring the current due to reduction of products after injection of sample into a flow injection analysis (FIA) system which incorporates the immobilized enzyme. Using apple juices, a linear (R>0.9) correlation was observable b...
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A new automated flow-injection method for the determination of the total polyphenol index in wines based on the Folin-Ciocalteau reaction in 0.5 mol 1−1 NaOH is proposed. The method allows different types of wine to be analysed automatically at a rate of 60 h−1 by using gallic or tannic acid as standard. By applying the proposed method to real samples of white, rose and red wines, their total polyphenol indices were determined with a higher reproducibility (R.S.D.=0.8%) than that afforded by ear...
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The chlorogenic and caffeic acid combined in apple juice cultivars and ciders correlated very well with total phenol content (P 0.001; r = 0.989; n = 22). The same correlation was found when analyzed strictly by cultivar (P 0.001; r = 0.986; n = 10). Analysis used automated Folin Ciocalteu (FC) colorimetry values for total phenols and reversed-phase HPLC (280 nm detection) for chlorogenic and caffeic acid before and after fermentation. Concentrations were between 8 and 1012 mg/L (as chlorogenic ...
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses various methods of estimating protein concentration. Absorption spectroscopy involves the absorption of a photon by an electron. Only those photons with a certain energy level can be absorbed as defined by the difference in energy between the orbital of the unexcited electron and a higher energy orbital. The peptide bond absorbs photons below 210 nm. Because of the large number of peptide bonds in a protein, this is a highly sensitive area of the protein ...
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In the case of proanthocyanidins, reaction with vanillin in the presence of sulfuric acid is more sensitive than estimation by anthocyanidin formation. It is more specific than the assay by formaldehyde precipitation. Reaction with nitrous acid affords a selective estimation of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. These methods are applied to tannin estimation in wood extracts of 5 gymnosperms and 12 angiosperms and the values obtained compared to total phenols amounts
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