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U-impact pathway for diagnosis and impact assessment of crop improvement

Published on Jun 1, 2007in The Journal of Agricultural Science1.33
· DOI :10.1017/S0021859607007046
John Dixon20
Estimated H-index: 20
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Jonathan Hellin2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 1 AuthorsPetr Kosina8
Estimated H-index: 8
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
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Abstract
SUMMARY Agricultural research has contributed enormously to poverty reduction and increased food security worldwide. Wheat crop improvement is a good example of this contribution. Public investments in wheat research from the Green Revolution onwards led to significant productivity increases : following the widespread adoption of semi-dwarf varieties, annual yield growth rates peaked at 2 . 75 % p.a. in the 1980s. Since then, public and private investments in crop (including wheat) research have been modest despite the potential of such research to contribute substantially to the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving hunger and poverty by 2015. Drawing on a wide spectrum of recent literature, the present paper broadens the usual frame of reference for diagnosing the adoption of improved technology and measuring impact. The adoption of improved varieties and management practices is influenced on the supply side by the nature and performance of the input delivery pathway from research to the farm (input value chains), and on the demand side by the characteristics of the farm household system and the marketing or value-adding chains from the farm to the consumer (output value chains). These three elements (input value chains, farm household system characteristics, and output value chains) can be viewed as a U-impact pathway. This pathway determines the rate and extent of adoption of improved varieties and practices, the magnitude of direct and indirect impacts, and the potential for feedback loops leading to improved functioning of the input and output value chains. The U-impact pathway provides a framework to identify an expanded set of beneficiaries from crop improvement which extend beyond the common focus on producers and final consumers ; conventional surplus analysis can then be used to estimate the wider benefits to crop improvement. Additional metrics may be needed to estimate impact related to non-economic benefits, such as poverty, health and social capital. The implication of this fuller accounting of impacts is that the benefits accruing to agricultural research may be greater, and more widely distributed across the economy, than previously recognized by research managers and policy-makers. This strengthens the case for maintained or increased public and private sector investment in crop improvement.
  • References (53)
  • Citations (15)
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References53
Newest
Published on Nov 1, 2007
Vijay Laxmi7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Olaf Erenstein24
Estimated H-index: 24
(CGIAR),
Raj K. Gupta28
Estimated H-index: 28
(CGIAR)
To date, the most widely adopted resource conserving technology (RCT) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP)has been zero-tillage (ZT) for wheat after rice, particularly in India. This report reviews and synthesizes the experience with zero tillage in the Indian IGP. Zero tillage of wheat after rice generates significant benefits at the farm level, both in terms of significant yield gains (6–10%, particularly due to timelier planting of wheat) and cost savings (5–10%, particularly tillage savings). T...
Published on Jun 1, 2007in The Journal of Agricultural Science1.33
J. P. Brennan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(New South Wales Department of Primary Industries),
Anthony G. Condon34
Estimated H-index: 34
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
+ 1 AuthorsMatthew P. Reynolds61
Estimated H-index: 61
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
SUMMARY Physiological research has shown that measurements on small plots of stomatal conductance, canopy temperature depression (CTD) or carbon isotope discrimination may be useful for screening breeding populations for yield potential, prior to the execution of expensive replicated yield trials. Such indirect selection criteria may be very effective as lower cost alternatives for estimating genetic gain for complex characteristics such as yield that are relatively expensive to measure accurate...
Published on Jun 1, 2007in The Journal of Agricultural Science1.33
Raj K. Gupta28
Estimated H-index: 28
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
K.D. Sayre29
Estimated H-index: 29
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
The Green Revolution era focused on enhancing the production and productivity of rice and wheat. New challenges demand that the issues of efficient resource use and resource conservation receive high priority to ensure that past gains can be sustained and further enhanced to meet the emerging needs. Extending some of the resource-conserving interventions developed for wheat to rice culture is a major challenge for researchers and farmers alike. The present paper shares recent research experience...
Published on Apr 1, 2007in The Journal of Agricultural Science1.33
Peter Hobbs11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Cornell University)
Conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, is a more sustainable cultivation system for the future than those presently practised. The present paper first introduces the reasons for tillage in agriculture and discusses how this age-old agricultural practice is responsible for the degradation of natural resources and soils. The paper goes on to introduce conservation tillage (CT), a minimum tillage and sur...
Published on Jan 1, 2007in Handbook of Agricultural Economics
Prabhu Pingali40
Estimated H-index: 40
(FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization),
Timothy G. Kelley9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CGIAR)
Considering the deep pessimism about the limits to growth that prevailed throughout much of the 60s and early 70s, the rapid growth in food crop productivity and food supplies triggered by the Green Revolution was a remarkable achievement. The driving force behind this success was the application of modern science for enhancing food crop productivity, particularly in the favorable production environments. The CGIAR played a crucial role in adapting scientific knowledge to the conditions of devel...
Published on Jan 1, 2007
J. Dixon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CGIAR),
H. T. Buck4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 1 AuthorsN. Salomón4
Estimated H-index: 4
During the two generations leading up to the turn of the century the global population grew by 90% whilst food production expanded by 115%. As with other food crops, wheat productivity rose steadily during the past 40 years through the availability of better varieties, inputs, markets and management. As a result of the growth in supply – wheat is the most widely internally-traded cerealproducer prices have fallen by approximately 40% during the past two generations. Notwithstanding the increase ...
Published on Jan 1, 2007
Ashok Gulati9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Nicholas Minot28
Estimated H-index: 28
+ 2 AuthorsJohannes V. Swinnen72
Estimated H-index: 72
Published on Aug 1, 2006in American Journal of Agricultural Economics2.53
Genti Kostandini8
Estimated H-index: 8
(VT: Virginia Tech),
Bradford F. Mills18
Estimated H-index: 18
(VT: Virginia Tech),
George W. Norton25
Estimated H-index: 25
(VT: Virginia Tech)
Biopharming stands to significantly expand the uses of many agricultural crops. This article examines the potential size and distribution of welfare gains from biopharming transgenic tobacco as a source of human serum albumin (HSA) using an economic surplus model under imperfect competition. The results suggest that HSA from transgenic tobacco will generate annual profits for the innovating firm of between 25 million and 9 million. On the other hand, consumers are unlikely to benefit during t...
Published on Mar 10, 2006in Experimental Agriculture2.09
C.M. Stirling1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bangor University),
D. Harris6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Bangor University),
J.R. Witcombe29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Bangor University)
There is no one widely accepted method of managing international agricultural research and numerous different models exist. Here we review one in particular, referred to as the 'institute without walls', from the perspective of the UK Department for International Development's (DFID) Renewable Natural Resource (RNR) Research Strategy (1990-2006). We begin with a brief history of the RNR Research Strategy from 1990 to 2004. We then draw on nearly 15 years experience of managing one of the program...
Published on Mar 1, 2006in Development Policy Review1.31
W. Bruce Traill22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Reading)
A series of articles, many of them published in this journal, have charted the rapid spread of supermarkets in developing and middle-income countries and forecast its continuation. In this article, the level of supermarket penetration (share of the retail food market) is modelled quantitatively on a cross-section of 42 countries for which data could be obtained, representing all stages of development. GDP per capita, income distribution, urbanisation, female labour force participation and openne...
Cited By15
Newest
Olaf Erenstein24
Estimated H-index: 24
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Girma T. Kassie11
Estimated H-index: 11
(ICARDA: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas)
Improved maize seed is instrumental to deliver an Asian-style ‘green revolution’ for Africa. The paper reviews and makes a comparative analysis of the maize (corn) seed sector and its evolution in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia drawing from seed sector surveys and secondary data. Enhancing farmers’ access to and use of new maize varieties still presents a number of challenges in eastern Africa – not least due to a number of policy and institutional impediments to the development of the see...
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Rajan Bhatt6
Estimated H-index: 6
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Human Ecology1.34
Alder Keleman7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Yale University),
Jon Hellin21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Dagoberto Flores5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Discussions of maize agriculture in Mexico often treat “maize” as a uniform commodity, sold in a relatively homogeneous market, and for which there is a single, “economically rational” production strategy. Based on qualitative research on maize value chains, we suggest that this unitary notion entails significant oversimplifications. We offer a heuristic model of farm-size related “profitability crossover,” based on observations of highland maize varieties’ roles within a series of farm-cycle op...
Published on Apr 1, 2013in Regional Environmental Change3.15
Kristian Thor Jakobsen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(United Nations Environment Programme)
The application of a livelihood asset-based approach to adaptation policy targeting is presented through the creation of maps highlighting the spatial contrasts of access to various types of livelihood assets utilizing primary household data. Thus, the livelihood maps provide policy-makers with a tool to quickly identify areas with limited access to certain types of assets, making the latter less able to react to a changing level of climate-related risks. In the case of Bhutan, distinct spatial ...
Published on Jan 1, 2013
Most of the farmers of irrigated areas cultivate their fields with traditional tillage practices which increase the cost of production as well as delaying sowing which has adverse effects on crop growth and yield.In addition towards tillage, straw managing is a key factor for better crop growth and yield.Two field trials were conducted to estimate the “Crop residual management techniques with different tillage practices in a rice-wheat cropping system” at the Post Graduate Agricultural Research ...
Published on Feb 1, 2012in Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Olaf Erenstein24
Estimated H-index: 24
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Ken D. Sayre24
Estimated H-index: 24
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 2 AuthorsJohn Dixon20
Estimated H-index: 20
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Conservation agriculture’s underlying principles—minimal soil disturbance, soil cover and crop rotation—are increasingly recognized as essential for sustainable agriculture. This article summarizes three contrasting cases of adapting conservation agriculture (CA) to smallholder conditions in the (sub)tropics: a) irrigated rice-wheat systems in South Asia; b) rainfed maize/wheat and irrigated wheat systems in Mexico; and c) rainfed maize in Southern Africa. In the South Asia case, farm surveys sh...
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Crop Science1.64
J. W. A. Langeveld1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
John Dixon20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research),
J. F. Jaworski1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Industry Canada)
This paper provides an outline of the biobased economy, its perspectives for agriculture and, more particularly, for development purposes. Possibilities of development of biobased products, advanced biofuels, and viable and effi cient biorefi nery concepts are explored. The paper lists non-fuel bioproducts (e.g., chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biopolymers) and presents basic principles and development options for biorefi neries that can be used to generate them alongside biofuels, power, and by-pro...
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Applied Geography3.07
Olaf Erenstein24
Estimated H-index: 24
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Jon Hellin21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Parvesh Chandna2
Estimated H-index: 2
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
Abstract Poverty maps are an increasingly popular mode of visualizing the spatial dimension of poverty. They help guide priority-setting and target poverty-alleviation interventions. The utility of poverty maps can be enhanced by spatially disaggregating the underlying causes of poverty. One promising approach explored in this paper is the use of livelihood assets – natural, physical, human, social and financial – the building blocks of sustainable livelihoods. We illustrate the approach by mapp...
Patrick Akowuah (University of Tsukuba)
Slash-and-burn farming in the Atwima-Nwabiagya district of Ghana has contributed to more fragile farmland and low soil fertility, resulting in very low crop yields. No-tillage is an agricultural practice whereby a crop is established without any prior tillage or burning of the land. and it was introduced to Ghanaian farmers by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in 1995. In this study, factors affecting the promotion, adoption, and impacts of no-tillage farming were assessed. Questionnaires wer...
Published on Jan 1, 2009
Sarah Swenson1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Keith M. Moore6
Estimated H-index: 6
(VT: Virginia Tech)
Conservation agriculture (CA) has been trumpeted as the solution for reducing soil degradation and increasing agricultural productivity around the world. Some farmland settings, such as in Brazil and the United States, have established substantial hectarage in conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) establishment, while other locations, such as in Africa, have little permanent adoption of CA practices. A close review of the literature on adoption of CA technologies indicates that smal...