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New unicellular red alga, Bulboplastis apyrenoidosa gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodellophyceae, Rhodophyta) from the mangroves of Japan: Phylogenetic and ultrastructural observations
SUMMARY A novel unicellular red alga collected from a mangrove area on Iriomote Island in southwest Japan is described as Bulboplastis apyrenoidosa gen. et sp. nov. The cells are spherical, mean 11.2 µm in diameter, and surrounded by a thick mucilaginous sheath. The grayish-green chloroplast has many lobes extending throughout the cell and lacks a pyrenoid. This chloroplast type is similar to Glaucosphaera vacuolata, but differs from other unicellular red algae. Plastoglobuli clusters occur beneath the chloroplast envelope but only at the cell periphery. A peripheral encircling thylakoid is absent. Golgi bodies surround the central nucleus, which is an arrangement shared with all members of the Dixoniellales. The subcellular features of some mitotic phases are quite similar to those of other unicellular red algae. A pair of ring-shaped structures located within electron-dense material can be seen in cells undergoing telophase. The size of the polar rings ranged within those reported from the Dixoniellales. A phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit rDNA indicates that B. apyrenoidosa is a member of the Dixoniellales and a sister lineage to Neorhodellaand Dixoniella.
  • References (28)
  • Cited By (6)
Hwan Su Yoon19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Bigelow Laboratory For Ocean Sciences),
Giuseppe C. Zuccarello25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Victoria University of Wellington),
Debashish Bhattacharya63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Rutgers University)
The red algae (Rhodophyta) form a distinct photosynthetic eukaryotic lineage that consists of around 6,000 species including unicellular to large multicellular taxa ( The red algae are unique among eukaryotes in lacking both flagella and centrioles during their entire life cycle (Gabrielson et al., 1990; Graham and Wilcox, 2000). Pit connections, pit plugs, and a triphasic life cycle that are mostly found in the Florideophyceae are also distinguishing characters of the...
19 Citations Download PDF Cite
2000 in AlgaeIF: 1.56
Yoshiaki Hara18
Estimated H-index: 18
Akiko Yokoyama10
Estimated H-index: 10
Estimated H-index: 1
The systematic relationship of the unicellular red algae based on their morphological, physiological and habitual characteristics was discussed by referring to the results of their molecular phylogenetic analyses, using 18S rRNA and psbA genes. Five groups (named as one ancestral stock; Porphyridium Group (-G) and other four groups; Rhodospora-Rhodella-, Rhodosorus-and Cyanidium-G) previously reported were partially supported by the molecular phylogeny which showed four phylogenetic groups. Howe...
11 Citations Source
Sharon T. Broadwater9
Estimated H-index: 9
(College of William & Mary),
Joseph L. Scott12
Estimated H-index: 12
(College of William & Mary)
The phylum Rhodophyta is an enigmatic as semblage of organisms whose phylogenetic relationships with other eukaryotes are shrouded in uncertainty. The group was long held to be among the most primitive eukaryotes due to the lack of a centriole complex and the similarities between the red algal chloroplast and cyanobacteria (Garbary and Gabrielson 1990). This view was given further impetus when the analysis of red algal 5s ribosomal RNA indicated an early divergence from other eukaryotes (Lim et ...
21 Citations Source Cite
1996 in BioScienceIF: 5.88
David G. Mann44
Estimated H-index: 44
H.M Jahns1
Estimated H-index: 1
1,003 Citations Source
1991 in Journal of PhycologyIF: 3.00
Laura M. Patrone6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Binghamton University),
Sharon T. Broadwater9
Estimated H-index: 9
(College of William & Mary),
Joseph L. Scott12
Estimated H-index: 12
(College of William & Mary)
Rhodella violacea (Kornmann) Wehrmeyer and Rhodella maculata Evans were investigated for ultrastructural details of vegetative and dividing cells. Rhodella violacea has a nuclear projection into the pyrenoid similar to that found in R. maculata, although the nuclear projection in R. maculata traverses a starch-lined area before contacting the pyrenoid. Unlike most, red algae, the two Rhodella species lack a peripheral encircling thylakoid in the chloroplast and have dictyosomes associated solely...
18 Citations Source Cite
1999 in Journal of PhycologyIF: 3.00
Ulf Karsten50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research),
John A. West29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Melbourne)
+ 3 AuthorsRobert J. King14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of New South Wales)
The qualitative and quantitative occurrence of low molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWCs) in the Bangiophyceae is surveyed. Members of the orders Erythropeltidales (Sahlingia and Erythrotrichia), Compsopogonales (Compsopogon), and Bangiales (Bangia and Porphyra) all contain floridoside and, in some cases, D- and L-isofloridoside, making the group chemotaxonomically the most homogeneous; L-isofloridoside occurred only in the Bangiales. The Porphyridiales showed great variation in carbohydrate typ...
66 Citations Source Cite
2011 in AlgaeIF: 1.56
Eun-Chan Yang3
Estimated H-index: 3
Joe Scot1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 5 AuthorsEvguenia Orlova5
Estimated H-index: 5
The unicellular marine red alga Erythrolobus australicus sp. nov. (Porphyridiophyceae) was isolated into laboratory culture from mangroves in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. The single multi-lobed red to rose-red plastid has more than one pyrenoid and lacks a peripheral thylakoid. Arrays of small electron dense globules occur along the thylakoids. The nucleus is peripheral with a central to eccentric nucleolus. Each Golgi body is associated with a mitochondrion. The spherical cells ar...
5 Citations Source Cite
1982 in BotanyIF: 1.18
Kathleen L. Schornstein4
Estimated H-index: 4
Joe Scott11
Estimated H-index: 11
Mitosis in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum was studied with the electron microscope. During early prophase two bipartite nucleus associated organelles (NAOs) are seen in a region that will become one of the division poles. The division axis is established by the migration of one NAO. Microbodies are associated with the poles throughout the mitotic cycle. At prometaphase the nuclear envelope (NE) subjacent to each NAO forms a nuclear pocket which breaks down or opens to form a lar...
35 Citations Source Cite
Akifumi S. Tanabe2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Tohoku University)
The application of different substitution models to each gene (a.k.a. mixed model) should be considered in model-based phylogenetic analysis of multigene sequences. However, a single molecular evolution model is still usually applied. There are no computer programs able to conduct model selection for multiple loci at the same time, though several recently developed types of software for phylogenetic inference can handle mixed model. Here, I have developed computer software named ‘kakusan’ that e...
189 Citations Source Cite
  • References (28)
  • Cited By (6)
2014 in PhycologiaIF: 1.80
Kazuya Takahashi9
Estimated H-index: 9
Chihiro Sarai1
Estimated H-index: 1
Mitsunori Iwataki16
Estimated H-index: 16
The morphology of two marine woloszynskioid dinoflagellates from the Japanese coast was examined by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and phylogenetic positions were inferred on the basis of partial nuclear-encoded large-subunit ribosomal (r)DNA (D1–D3) sequences. Both species had a single elongate apical vesicle (EAV) on the anterior end, a diagnostic feature of the Suessiaceae, and were identified as Biecheleriopsis adriatica and an undescribed species of Biecheleria. Cells...
12 Citations Source Cite
2013 in Botanica MarinaIF: 0.99
Craig W. Schneider13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Trinity College, Dublin),
Michael J. Wynne19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Trinity College, Dublin)
A second addendum to Schneider and Wynne ' s (Schneider, C.W. and M.J. Wynne. 2007. A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Bot. Mar. 50: 197-249.) " Synoptic review " of red algal genera and their classification is presented, with an updating of names of new taxa at the generic level and higher. In the past few years, the hierarchy of some genera has changed due to new subfamilies, which are cited and reference...
3 Citations Source Cite
2015 in AlgaeIF: 1.56
Wladimir Costa Paradas5
Estimated H-index: 5
Leonardo R. Andrade21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 3 AuthorsGilberto M. Amado-Filho15
Estimated H-index: 15
The present study described with different microscopy approaches chloroplasts lobes in Laurencia sensu latu (Rhodophyta) species and found inter-specific differences among them. Chloroplasts were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Using and TEM and HRSEM images we distinguished chloroplasts with lobes than chloroplasts without lobes in Yuzurua poiteaui var. gemmifera (Harvey...
1 Citations Source Cite
2017 in Current BiologyIF: 9.25
Sergio A. Muñoz-Gómez6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Dalhousie University),
Fabian G. Mejía-Franco1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsClaudio H. Slamovits26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Canadian Institute for Advanced Research)
Summary Red algal plastid genomes are often considered ancestral and evolutionarily stable, and thus more closely resembling the last common ancestral plastid genome of all photosynthetic eukaryotes [1, 2]. However, sampling of red algal diversity is still quite limited (e.g., [2–5]). We aimed to remedy this problem. To this end, we sequenced six new plastid genomes from four undersampled and phylogenetically disparate red algal classes (Porphyridiophyceae, Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophycea...
27 Citations Source Cite
David Roy Smith26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Western Ontario)
There is a strong positive relationship between nuclear genome size and cell size across the eukaryotic domain, but the cause and effect of this relationship is unclear. A positive coupling of cell size and DNA content has also been recorded for various bacteria, suggesting that, with some exceptions, this association might be universal throughout the tree of life. However, the link between cell size and genome size has not yet been thoroughly explored with respect to chloroplasts, or organelles...
1 Citations Source Cite
2018 in PLOS ONEIF: 2.77
Chung Hyun Cho1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Sungkyunkwan University),
Ji Won Choi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Sungkyunkwan University)
+ 2 AuthorsHwan Su Yoon19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Sungkyunkwan University)
The red algal subclass Nemaliophycidae includes both marine and freshwater taxa that contribute to more than half of the freshwater species in Rhodophyta. Given that these taxa inhabit diverse habitats, the Nemaliophycidae is a suitable model for studying environmental adaptation. For this purpose, we characterized plastid genomes of two freshwater species, Kumanoa americana (Batrachospermales) and Thorea hispida (Thoreales), and one marine species Palmaria palmata (Palmariales). Comparative gen...
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View next paperCorynoplastis japonica gen. et sp. nov. and Dixoniellales ord. nov. (Rhodellophyceae, Rhodophyta) based on morphological and molecular evidence