The Social Accountability of Medical Schools and its Indicators

Published on Sep 1, 2012in Education and Health
· DOI :10.4103/1357-6283.109785
Charles Boelen2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Shafik Dharamsi14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of British Columbia),
Trevor Gibbs12
Estimated H-index: 12
Abstract
Context : There is growing interest worldwide in social accountability for medical and other health professional schools. Attempts have been made to apply the concept primarily to educational reform initiatives with limited concern towards transforming an entire institution to commit and assess its education , research and service delivery missions to better meet priority health needs in society for an efficient, equitable an sustainable health system. Methods : In this paper, we clarify the concept of social accountability in relation to responsibility and responsiveness by providing practical examples of its application; and we expand on a previously described conceptual model of social accountability (the CPU model), by further delineating the parameters composing the model and providing examples on how to translate them into meaningful indicators. Discussion : The clarification of concepts of social responsibility, responsiveness and accountability and the examples provided in designing indicators may help medical schools and other health professional schools in crafting their own benchmarks to assess progress towards social accountability within the context of their particular environment.
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  • Citations (41)
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References14
Published on Aug 19, 2002in The Medical Journal of Australia 4.23
Sylvia R. Cruess22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
Sharon E Johnston Llm7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Richard L. Cruess34
Estimated H-index: 34
■ Physicians' dual roles - as healer and professional - are linked by codes of ethics governing behaviour and are empowered by science. ■ Being part of a profession entails a societal contract. The profession is granted a monopoly over the use of a body of knowledge and the privilege of self-regulation and, in return, guarantees society professional competence, integrity and the provision of altruistic service. ■ Societal attitudes to professionalism have changed from supportive to increasingly ...
90 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2010in The Lancet 53.25
Julio Frenk Mora44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Harvard University),
Lincoln Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(China Medical Board)
+ 16 AuthorsPatrick Kelley3
Estimated H-index: 3
100 years ago a series of studies about the education of health professionals led by the 1910 Flexner report sparked groundbreaking reforms. Through integration of modern science into the curricula at university-based schools the reforms equipped health professionals with the knowledge that contributed to the doubling of life span during the 20th century. By the beginning of the 21st century however all is not well. Glaring gaps and inequities in health persist both within and between countries ...
2,088 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 12, 2010in PLOS Medicine 11.68
Julio Frenk Mora44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Harvard University)
The author has declared that no competing interests exist. This work was supported by a grant to the Institutional Innovations in Global Health project by the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States under its “Acting in Time” program. Additional support was received from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research Triangle, North Carolina, United States. The funders had no role the decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. Provena...
182 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2010in The Lancet 53.25
Zulfiqar A. Bhutta106
Estimated H-index: 106
(Aga Khan University),
Lincoln Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(China Medical Board)
+ 17 AuthorsYang Ke7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Peking University)
74 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2011in Educación Médica
Charles Boelen5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Robert Woollard12
Estimated H-index: 12
48 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 18, 2011in PLOS Medicine 11.68
Francesca Celletti9
Estimated H-index: 9
(World Health Organization),
Teri A. Reynolds12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of California, San Francisco)
+ 2 AuthorsManuel Dayrit6
Estimated H-index: 6
(World Health Organization)
1 Department of Human Resources for Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2 Department of Human Resources for Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, and Department of Emergency Medicine and Division of Global Health, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, 3 Independent Contributor, London, United Kingdom, 4 Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
38 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2011in Academic Medicine 4.80
Shafik Dharamsi14
Estimated H-index: 14
,
Anita Ho13
Estimated H-index: 13
+ 1 AuthorsRobert Woollard12
Estimated H-index: 12
Abstract There is a growing demand for educating future physicians to be socially responsible. It is not clear, however, how social responsibility is understood and acted on in medical education and practice, particularly within the context of a growing desire to improve health care through an equitable and sustainable delivery system. The authors conduct a concept analysis, exploring the practical philosophical understanding of social responsibility and its implications for medical education an...
72 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 20, 2009in Medical Education 4.41
Charles Boelen5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Bob Woollard3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of British Columbia)
Context An association with excellence should be reserved for educational institutions which verify that their actions make a difference to people’s well-being. The graduates they produce should not only possess all of the competencies desirable to improve the health of citizens and society, but should also use them in their professional practice. Four principles enunciated by the World Health Organization refer to the type of health care to which people have a right, from both an individual and...
134 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Medical Education 4.41
Bob Woollard3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of British Columbia),
Charles Boelen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of British Columbia)
Medical Education 2012: 46: 21–27 Context The acquisition of sums of knowledge and mastery of sophisticated technologies by medical graduates is insufficient for their responsibilities to recognise and adapt to people's evolving needs. Response A Global Consensus on Social Accountability for Medical Schools brought together 130 organisations and individuals from around the world with responsibility for health education, professional regulation and policy making to participate for 8 months in a t...
39 Citations Source Cite
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Cited By41
Published on Dec 1, 2014in BMC International Health and Human Rights 1.76
William Ventres10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of El Salvador),
Meredith P. Fort6
Estimated H-index: 6
Background There is a growing understanding of the role social determinants such as poverty, gender discrimination, racial prejudice, and economic inequality play on health and illness. While these determinants and effects may be challenging to identify in parts of high-income countries, they are patently obvious in many other areas of the world. How we react to these determinants and effects depends on what historical, cultural, ideological, and psychological characteristics we bring to our enc...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Education in Medicine Journal
P. Ravi Shankar11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Xavier University)
Xavier University School of Medicine (XUSOM) is a private medical school in Aruba shifted to an integrated, organ system-based curriculum from January 2014. There is greater emphasis on problem-based learning, small group activities, early clinical exposure, and self-directed learning. In this article the author describes challenges faced while implementing the integrated curriculum. Among the challenges faced were faculty apprehensions about an integrated curriculum, faculty apprehensions regar...
1 Citations Source Cite
Mads Dam Vildbrad1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Johanne Marie Lyhne1
Estimated H-index: 1
Background To practice medicine, doctors must master leadership, communication, team management, and collaboration, in addition to medical knowledge. The CanMEDS framework describes seven roles of a doctor, but the six nonmedical expert roles are de-emphasized in the academic medical curriculum. Innovative opportunities are needed for medical students to develop as participants in a world of interdisciplinary health care.
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 7, 2014in Health Education
Shafik Dharamsi14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of British Columbia),
Robert Woollard12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of British Columbia)
+ 2 AuthorsAndrew Macnab22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of British Columbia)
Purpose – Although medical schools do well in preparing the next generation of practitioners to diagnose and clinically treat illness, they struggle in preparing them with capabilities in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention. Similarly, health promoting schools (HPS) face challenges in working to enhance the health and educational outcomes of children. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw from their local and international collabo...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 13, 2015in Medical Teacher 2.45
Somaya Hosny6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Suez Canal University),
Mona Sayed Ghaly2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Suez Canal University),
Charles Boelen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Suez Canal University)
AbstractBackground: Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University (FOM/SCU) was established as community oriented school with innovative educational strategies. Social accountability represents the commitment of the medical school towards the community it serves.Aims: To assess FOM/SCU compliance to social accountability using the “Conceptualization, Production, Usability” (CPU) model.Methods: FOM/SCU’s practice was reviewed against CPU model parameters. CPU consists of three domains, 11 sections a...
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 29, 2015in Medical Teacher 2.45
Sean Tackett4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine),
Janet Grant15
Estimated H-index: 15
,
Kristin N Mmari13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Johns Hopkins University)
AbstractPurpose: To create an evaluation plan for the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) accreditation standards for basic medical education.Methods: We conceptualized the 100 basic standards from “Basic Medical Education: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement: The 2012 Revision” as medical education program objectives. Standards were simplified into evaluable items, which were then categorized as inputs, processes, outputs and/or outcomes to generate a logic model and corresp...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 1.65
Mary Rudolf15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Bar-Ilan University),
Shmuel Reis27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Bar-Ilan University)
+ 8 AuthorsSivan Spitzer-Shohat1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bar-Ilan University)
The role of medical schools is in a process of change. The World Health Organization has declared that they can no longer be ivory towers whose primary focus is the production of specialist physicians and cutting edge laboratory research. They must also be socially accountable and direct their activities towards meeting the priority health concerns of the areas they serve. The agenda must be set in partnership with stakeholders including governments, health care organisations and the public. The...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2014in Medical Teacher 2.45
Marie Louise McCrea1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Deborah Murdoch-Eaton18
Estimated H-index: 18
AbstractAim: The concept of social accountability within undergraduate training is embedded within the remit of medical schools. Little is known of how medical students perceive social accountability, recognize aspects of their training contributing to the development of this concept and cultivate the underpinning values.Methods: Students nearing graduation were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to explore their perceptions of social accountability, which curricular aspects had c...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Otjr-occupation Participation and Health 1.00
Tahmineh Mousavi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of British Columbia),
Shafik Dharamsi14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of British Columbia)
+ 1 AuthorsElizabeth Dean23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of British Columbia)
Life Capability is the first and most fundamental of Nussbaum’s 10 Central Human Functional Capabilities (CHFCs). This capability refers to a person having a quality life of normal duration. The purpose of this study was to explore the views’ of occupational therapists about Life Capability, specifically, their perspectives of this capability and its perceived relevance to practice. Semi-structured interviews with 14 occupational therapists in British Columbia, Canada, were conducted and themati...
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Assadi Seyedeh Negar (Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)
Introduction: Social accountability in medical education is an essential part of the health education process. According to the current needs in health education, social accountabilityin medical education is useful for increasing the overall knowledge of students, helping themto reach their maximum competency. The objective of this study was to determine the effectsof social accountability medical sciences education on the knowledge of occupational healthpersonnel working in the cement field.Met...
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