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Type 2 responses at the interface between immunity and fat metabolism.

Published on Oct 1, 2015in Current Opinion in Immunology7.667
· DOI :10.1016/j.coi.2015.07.003
Justin I. Odegaard28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco),
Ajay Chawla38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
Abstract
Adipose tissue resident leukocytes are often cast solely as the effectors of obesity and its attendant pathologies; however, recent observations have demonstrated that these cells support and effect ‘healthy’ physiologic function as well as pathologic dysfunction. Importantly, these two disparate outcomes are underpinned by similarly disparate immune programs; type 2 responses instruct and promote metabolic normalcy, while type 1 responses drive tissue dysfunction. In this Review, we summarize the literature regarding type 2 immunity's role in adipose tissue physiology and allude to its potential therapeutic implications.
  • References (60)
  • Citations (29)
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References60
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#1Parizad M. Bilimoria (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 1
#2Beth Stevens (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 40
Abstract The role of microglia in healthy brains is just beginning to receive notice. Recent studies have revealed that these phagocytic cells control the patterning and wiring of the developing central nervous system (CNS) by regulating, amongst many other processes, programmed cell death, activity-dependent synaptic pruning and synapse maturation. Microglia also play important roles in the mature brain and have demonstrated effects on behavior. Converging evidence from human and mouse studies ...
98 CitationsSource
#1Dmitriy Kolodin (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
Last. Diane Mathis (Harvard University)H-Index: 116
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Summary A unique population of Foxp3 + CD4 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, with a distinct transcriptome and antigen-receptor repertoire, resides in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of lean individuals. These cells regulate local inflammation and both local and systemic metabolic indices. Here we focus on expansion of the VAT Treg compartment in aging lean mice—assessing these cells' phenotypic conversion from conventional CD4 + T cells, influx from lymphoid organs, and local population dynamics. Our ...
141 CitationsSource
#1Chen VarolH-Index: 15
#2Alexander MildnerH-Index: 22
Last. Steffen Jung (Weizmann Institute of Science)H-Index: 87
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Macrophages are myeloid immune cells that are strategically positioned throughout the body tissues, where they ingest and degrade dead cells, debris, and foreign material and orchestrate inflammatory processes. Here we review two major recent paradigm shifts in our understanding of tissue macrophage biology. The first is the realization that most tissue-resident macrophages are established prenatally and maintained through adulthood by longevity and self-renewal. Their generation and maintenance...
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#2Karin de Ruiter (LUMC: Leiden University Medical Center)H-Index: 2
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#2Brian S. KimH-Index: 25
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#1Jonathan R. Brestoff (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 14
#2David Artis (Cornell University)H-Index: 79
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide. While genetic and environmental factors are known to regulate the development of obesity and associated metabolic diseases, emerging studies indicate that innate and adaptive immune cell responses in adipose tissue have critical roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In the lean state, type 2 cytokine-associated immune cell responses predominate in white adipose tissue and protect against weight gain and insulin resistance throug...
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Summary Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), an innate source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and -13, participate in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Although type 2 immunity is critically important for mediating metabolic adaptations to environmental cold, the functions of ILC2s in beige or brown fat development are poorly defined. We report here that activation of ILC2s by IL-33 is sufficient to promote the growth of functional beige fat in thermoneutral mice. Mechanisticall...
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