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Evolutionary History and Taxonomy of Red Algae
Abstract
The red algae (Rhodophyta) form a distinct photosynthetic eukaryotic lineage that consists of around 6,000 species including unicellular to large multicellular taxa (http://www.algaebase.org/). The red algae are unique among eukaryotes in lacking both flagella and centrioles during their entire life cycle (Gabrielson et al., 1990; Graham and Wilcox, 2000). Pit connections, pit plugs, and a triphasic life cycle that are mostly found in the Florideophyceae are also distinguishing characters of the red algae. The photosynthetic organelle (plastid) of red algae is bounded by two membranes and contains chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin as photosynthetic pigments. These pigment complexes, organized in phycobilisomes, are located on the surface of unstacked thylakoid membranes to capture light energy. As a storage product, the red algae produce granulated floridean starch in the cytoplasm that is different from green algal starch. In addition to these unique features, the monophyly of red algae is strongly supported by nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial gene trees (Freshwater et al., 1994; Ragan et al., 1994; Van de Peer and De Wachter, 1997; Burger et al., 1999; Yoon et al., 2002b, 2004).
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  • References (77)
  • Cited By (19)
  • References (77)
  • Cited By (19)
1994
Franklyn D. Ott3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Joseph Seckbach18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
The taxonomic and systematic chapters (Ott and Seckbach in this volume) gave the following binomials (and where applicable their respective formae) that have been applied at various times throughout the years to material presently recognized as the Cyanidaceae Geitler 1933. After each listed binomial there will be found, in parentheses, the modern name of the respective algal division to which the binomial would have been assigned at the time of its initial circumscription. The names of these re...
23 Citations Source Cite
2000 in HydrobiologiaIF: 2.17
Patrizia Albertano21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Sapienza University of Rome),
C. Ciniglia1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsAntonino Pollio26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Naples Federico II)
The ecophysiological, cytomorphological, biochemical and molecular data presently available for the acidophilic red algal species Cyanidium caldarium, Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Galdieria sulphuraria are summarised. The taxonomic position of the three genera is discussed and emendements to the generic diagnosis are presented.
46 Citations Source Cite
1997
G. W. Saunders1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
G. T. Kraft1
Estimated H-index: 1
This chapter assesses advances in red algal systematics that are attributable to molecular studies. The first attempts to examine phylogenetic relationships among red algae were by analyses of 5.8S rDNA, rbcL and SSU rDNA sequences. These initial studies established the foundation on which subsequent, increasingly sophisticated investigations have developed. We explore recent phylogenetic hypotheses published for the red algae. Emphasis is placed on reconciling conflicts between inconsistent phy...
38 Citations Source Cite
1994
Sharon T. Broadwater9
Estimated H-index: 9
(College of William & Mary),
Joseph L. Scott12
Estimated H-index: 12
(College of William & Mary)
The phylum Rhodophyta is an enigmatic as semblage of organisms whose phylogenetic relationships with other eukaryotes are shrouded in uncertainty. The group was long held to be among the most primitive eukaryotes due to the lack of a centriole complex and the similarities between the red algal chloroplast and cyanobacteria (Garbary and Gabrielson 1990). This view was given further impetus when the analysis of red algal 5s ribosomal RNA indicated an early divergence from other eukaryotes (Lim et ...
21 Citations Source Cite
2006
Shuhai Xiao50
Estimated H-index: 50
,
Alan J. Kaufman57
Estimated H-index: 57
Chapter 1: The Proterozoic Fossil Record of Heterotrophic Eukaryotes Sussannah M. Porter 1. Introduction 2. Eukaryotic Tree 3. Fossil Evidence for Proterozoic Heterotrophs 4. Why Are Heterotrophs Rare in Proterozoic Rocks? 5. Conclusions Chapter 2: On the Morphological History of Proterozoic and Cambrian Acritarchs John Warren Huntley, Shuhai Xiao, and Michael Kowalewski 1. Introduction 2. Materials and Methods 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusions Acknowledgments References Appendix: SAS/IML ...
92 Citations Source Cite
2007
Joseph Seckbach18
Estimated H-index: 18
Foreword, Richard Castenholz. Preface, Joseph Seckbach. Introduction to the algal world, Meltem Conk-Dalay. Acknowledgement, Joseph Seckbach. List of Authors and addresses. PART 1: General Introduction Oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms in extreme environments: possibilities and limitation, Joseph Seckbach and Aharon Oren. PART 2: Phototrophs at high and low light Effects of ultraviolet radiation on cyanobacteria and their protective mechanisms, Bagmi Pattanaik, Rhena Schumann and Ulf Karste...
210 Citations Download PDF Cite
1997
Debashish Bhattacharya63
Estimated H-index: 63
D. Bhattacharya, An introduction to algal phylogeny and phylogenetic methods * S. Turner, Molecular systematics of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria * C.F. Delwiche, J.D. Palmer, The origin of plastids and their spread via secondary symbiosis * T. Friedl, The evolution of the Green Algae * V.A.R. Huss, H.D. Kranz, Charophyte evolution and the origin of land plants * G.W. Saunders, G.T. Kraft, A molecular perspective on red algal evolution: focus on the Florideophycidae * D. Bhattacharya, H.A. Sch...
77 Citations Source Cite
1994
Joseph Seckbach18
Estimated H-index: 18
Foreword L. Bogorad. Preface J. Seckbach. I: Models for the Eurkaryotic Cellular Origins and Evolutions. 1. Origin of Eukaryota from Cyanobacterium - Membrane Evolution Theory H. Nakamura. 2. Glaucocystophyta: Model for Symbiogenous Evolution of New Eukaryotic Species H. Schenk. 3. Alternative Pathway (Cyanobacterium to Eukaryota) T.E. Jensen. II: Green Enigmatic Algae. 4. Nanochlorum eucaryotum: A Green Enigmatic Alga R. Zahn. 5. Enigmatic Chlorophycean Algae Forming Symbiotic Association with ...
72 Citations Source Cite
Hwan Su Yoon21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Iowa),
Jeremiah D. Hackett25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Iowa)
+ 1 AuthorsDebashish Bhattacharya63
Estimated H-index: 63
(University of Iowa)
Abstract Algae include a diverse array of photosynthetic eukaryotes excluding land plants. Explaining the origin of algal plastids continues to be a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Current knowledge suggests that plastid primary endosymbiosis, in which a single-celled protist engulfs and “enslaves” a cyanobacterium, likely occurred once and resulted in the primordial alga. This eukaryote then gave rise through vertical evolution to the red, green, and glaucophyte algae. However, some mo...
283 Citations Download PDF Cite
  • References (77)
  • Cited By (19)
2012
Michael W. Gray65
Estimated H-index: 65
(Dalhousie University),
John M. Archibald36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Dalhousie University)
The evolution of mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts) by endosymbiosis is a central tenet of modern eukaryotic cell biology. Evidence in support of a prokaryotic ancestry for these textbook organelles is now stronger than ever, but despite decades of genomics-enabled research, fundamental questions about the earliest events leading to their establishment remain unanswered. Foremost among them is the precise nature of the cells involved in these endosymbiotic mergers. Mitochondria and plastid...
18 Citations Source Cite
Olivier De Clerck28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Ghent University),
Kenny A. Bogaert5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Ghent University),
Frederik Leliaert29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Ghent University)
Oxygenic photosynthesis, the chemical process whereby light energy powers the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds and oxygen is released as a waste product, evolved in the anoxygenic ancestors of Cyanobacteria. Although there is still uncertainty about when precisely and how this came about, the gradual oxygenation of the Proterozoic oceans and atmosphere opened the path for aerobic organisms and ultimately eukaryotic cells to evolve. There is a general consensus that photosynthe...
35 Citations Source Cite
2012 in Phycological ResearchIF: 1.27
Asuka Kushibiki1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yamagata University),
Akiko Yokoyama10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Tsukuba)
+ 3 AuthorsYoshiaki Hara18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Yamagata University)
SUMMARY A novel unicellular red alga collected from a mangrove area on Iriomote Island in southwest Japan is described as Bulboplastis apyrenoidosa gen. et sp. nov. The cells are spherical, mean 11.2 µm in diameter, and surrounded by a thick mucilaginous sheath. The grayish-green chloroplast has many lobes extending throughout the cell and lacks a pyrenoid. This chloroplast type is similar to Glaucosphaera vacuolata, but differs from other unicellular red algae. Plastoglobuli clusters occur bene...
6 Citations Source Cite
Juan Manuel Cabrera1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Buenos Aires),
Carlos A. Stortz6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Buenos Aires),
María Carla Rodríguez4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Buenos Aires)
The pseudofilamentous red alga Chroodactylon ornatum was grown in f/2 culture medium with the addition of 10, 34, and 100 μM (nominal concentration) cupric sulfate. The bioassays were terminated at two selected end points (days 4 and 12). Growth inhibition, changes in pigment composition, and oxidative stress indicators such as phenolic compounds and lipid peroxidation (dosed as thiobarbituric reactive substances) were observed in cultures with 34 and 100-μM cupric sulfate. Quinacrine (Atebrin) ...
1 Citations Source Cite
2013 in PLOS ONEIF: 2.77
Michael S. DePriest3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Alabama),
Debashish Bhattacharya63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Rutgers University),
Juan M. López-Bautista16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Alabama)
The complete plastid genome sequence of the red macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis S.-M.Lin & H.-Y.Liang (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is presented here. Comprising 191,270 bp, the circular DNA contains 233 protein-coding genes and 29 tRNA sequences. In addition, several genes previously unknown to red algal plastids are present in the genome of G. taiwanensis. The plastid genomes from G. taiwanensis and another florideophyte, Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui, are very similar in sequence and sh...
21 Citations Source Cite
2011 in SymbiosisIF: 1.71
John M. Archibald36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Dalhousie University)
The year 1970 saw the publication of Origin of Eukaryotic Cells by Lynn Margulis. This influential book brought the exciting and weighty problems of cellular evolution to the scientific mainstream, simultaneously breaking new ground and ‘re-discovering’ the decades-old ideas of German and Russian biologists. In this commemorative review, I discuss the 40 years that have elapsed since this landmark publication, with a focus on the ‘molecular era’: how DNA sequencing and comparative genomics have ...
21 Citations Source Cite
2014 in AlgaeIF: 1.56
John A. West29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Melbourne),
Susan Loiseaux-de Goër12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Giuseppe C. Zuccarello25
Estimated H-index: 25
Copyright © 2014 The Korean Society of Phycology 101 http://e-algae.kr pISSN: 1226-2617 eISSN: 2093-0860 A new species of Bangiopsis: B. franklynottii sp. nov. (Stylonematophyceae, Rhodophyta) from Australia and India and comments on the genus John A. West*, Susan Loiseaux de Goer and Giuseppe C. Zuccarello School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia 11 Rue des Moguerou, 29680 Roscoff, France School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 6...
5 Citations Source Cite
2011 in Plant PhysiologyIF: 5.95
Cheong Xin Chan19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
Jeferson Gross11
Estimated H-index: 11
+ 1 AuthorsDebashish Bhattacharya63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Rutgers University)
Algae are defined by their photosynthetic organelles (plastids) that have had multiple independent origins in different phyla. These instances of organelle transfer significantly complicate inference of the tree of life for eukaryotes because the intracellular gene transfer (endosymbiotic gene transfer [EGT]) associated with each round of endosymbiosis generates highly chimeric algal nuclear genomes. In this Update we review the current state in the field of endosymbiosis research with a focus o...
37 Citations Download PDF Cite
2011 in AlgaeIF: 1.56
Joe Scott11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Eun Chan Yang4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 6 AuthorsHwan Su Yoon19
Estimated H-index: 19
E-mail: hsyoon2011@skku.edu, jwest@unimelb.edu.auTel: +82-31-290-5915, Fax: +82-31-290-7015This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://cre-ativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
7 Citations Source Cite
Dana J. Skorupa2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Montana State University),
Valérie Reeb14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Iowa)
+ 2 AuthorsTimothy R. McDermott34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Montana State University)
The Cyanidiales are unicellular red algae that are unique among phototrophs. They thrive in acidic, moderately high-temperature habitats typically associated with geothermally active regions, although much remains to be learned about their distribution and diversity within such extreme environments. We focused on Yellowstone National Park (YNP), using culture-dependent efforts in combination with a park-wide environmental polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey to examine Cyanidiales diversity an...
10 Citations Source Cite
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