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Psychological Record
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#1Gabrielle T. Lee (UWO: University of Western Ontario)H-Index: 2
#2Sheng Xu (CNU: Chongqing Normal University)H-Index: 1
Last.Michelle W. Lee (MSU: Michigan State University)
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an instructional procedure on the acquisition and generalization of metaphorical understanding for children with autism spectrum disorder. Three students (two boys, one girl, 5–8 years old) participated but only two completed the study. A multiple-probe design across two behaviors and three participants was used. The metaphors were categorized by topography: metaphors involving physical features and metaphors involving abstract properties....
#1Steven R. Brown (KSU: Kent State University)H-Index: 14
Subjectivity is ubiquitous and implies perspectives that range in scope from the intrapersonal (as in individual musings and daydreams) to the intercultural (as in communication between and among identities) and in sophistication from the inchoate babblings of infants to the theoretical pronouncements of philosophers and mathematicians. Q methodology is a philosophical and conceptual framework that, in tandem with its technical and analytical procedures, provides the basis for a science of subje...
The present study evaluated a teaching procedure based on Multiple Exemplar Training (MET) to establish conditional relations between musical chords and printed words. In addition, generalization tests were provided to participants to assess concept formation processes for different types of musical chords (e.g., major, minor, consonant, and dissonant). Forty college students were equally distributed into two groups. Group 1 was taught the conditional relations between major and minor chords usi...
#1Erik Arntzen (Metropolitan University)H-Index: 18
#2Kim Henrik Liland (Metropolitan University)
Five adults served as participants in the present experiment, which aimed to study the establishment of conditional discriminations and the formation of equivalence classes with a restricted time window for responding. Prior to the conditional discrimination training the participants were trained in fast responding. This preliminary training was arranged with identity matching of colors in which a limited hold (LH) to sample and comparison was titrated to an asymptotic value of fast responding. ...
#1Simon Dymond (Swansea University)H-Index: 27
#2Samuel Llewellyn (Swansea University)
Relational memory is the ability to flexibly organize and integrate multiple sources of information to produce emergent outcomes. In tests for one type of relational memory—stimulus equivalence—arbitrary stimuli become related in ways not explicitly trained. Little is known, however, about whether stimulus equivalence-based relational memory ability differentially emerges during offline periods of either sleep or wake. In this study, 51 healthy young adults learned a series of interconnected con...
#1Soichiro Matsuda (University of Tsukuba)H-Index: 5
#2Takahide Omori (Keio: Keio University)H-Index: 3
Last.Jun-ichi Yamamoto (Keio: Keio University)H-Index: 7
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Reinforcement values of facial expressions for visual fixation remain underdeveloped in extant literature, though numerous studies have investigated the function of facial expressions as antecedents of gaze behavior. This study used a concurrent gaze-contingent reinforcement procedure to compare reinforcement values of positive and negative facial expressions for gaze fixation. In total, 7 of the 20 typical adults fixated more frequently on the side that was followed by positive facial expressio...
#1Adam Derenne (UND: University of North Dakota)H-Index: 11
Generalization gradients are sensitive to the manner in which participants are trained and tested. Discrimination training causes the generalization gradient to shift away from a stimulus paired with reinforcement (S+) in a direction opposite a stimulus paired with nonreinforcement (S-). In some cases, this leads to participants responding more frequently to a novel stimulus than S+ (a so-called peak shift). The present research examined how generalization gradients vary as a function of the ran...
#1Shane McLoughlin (University of Chester)
#2Ian Tyndall (University of Chichester)H-Index: 3
Last.Sam Ashcroft (University of Chester)H-Index: 1
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A core overarching aim of Relational Frame Theory (RFT) research on language and cognition is the prediction and influence of human behavior with precision, scope, and depth. However, the conceptualization and delineation of empirical investigations of higher-order language and cognition from a relational framing theoretical standpoint is a challenging task that requires a high degree of abstract reasoning and creativity. To that end, we propose using symbolic notation as seen in early RFT exper...
#1Wojciech Białaszek (University of Social Sciences and Humanities)H-Index: 4
#2Paweł Ostaszewski (University of Social Sciences and Humanities)H-Index: 8
Last.Joel Myerson (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 49
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Discounting refers to decreases in the subjective value of an outcome with increases in some attribute of that outcome. The attributes most commonly studied are delay and probability, with far less research on effort and social discounting. Although these attributes all represent costs that reduce subjective value, it is as yet unclear how the extent to which they do so is related at the individual level. Accordingly, the present study examined the degree to which individual participants discoun...
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