Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
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Abstract Quantum mechanics-based design of useful catalytic antibodies (catabodies) failed because of the uncertain structure of the dynamic catalyst-substrate complex. The Catabody Platform emerged from discovery of beneficial germline gene catabodies that hydrolyzed self-proteins by transient covalent pairing of the strong catabody nucleophile with a weak target protein electrophile. Catabodies have evolved by Darwinian natural selection for protection against misfolded self-proteins that thre...
Abstract With more than 80 subunits, potassium (K+) channels represent a group of ion channels showing high degree of diversity and ubiquity. They play important role in the control of membrane depolarization and cell excitability in several tissues, including the brain. Controlling the intracellular and extracellular K+ flow in cells, they also modulate the hormone and neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and cell proliferation. It is therefore not surprising that an improper functioning of K+ c...
Abstract Menopause is a stage in a woman’s life characterized by twelve months of amenorrhoea. This transition happens due to changes in ovarian follicular activity, leading to endocrine, biological and clinical modifications. The main hormones related to these changes and symptoms are oestradiol, LH, FSH, AMH, Inhibin B and GnRH. It is important to point out that the skin is very affected by all these hormone changes, leading to a decrease in collagen content, water content, elasticity, thickne...
Abstract Introduction Huntington´s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuropsychiatric, motor and cognitive manifestations. It is caused by expansion of the trinucleotide CAG on HTT. The molecular bases are not completely understood, DNA damage, such as double and single strand breaks and oxidative stress (OS) have been implicated. At telomeres, DNA breaks are less efficiently repaired. Double strand breaks evoke the break induced replication (BIR) mechanism. BIR, plus...
Abstract Alzheimer’s disease patients (AD), as well as AD transgenic mice, are characterized by increased frailty. Furthermore, the assessment of frailty status represents a feasible approach for detecting individuals prone to develop more severe form of AD and for measuring the outcome of existing and putative AD therapeutics. The 5xFAD mouse is one of the widely used transgenic animal models of AD, but frailty in this model is scantly investigated. We used two validated mouse frailty assessmen...
Abstract Ageing-associated changes in the protein coding transcriptome have been extensively characterised, but less attention has been paid to the non-coding portion of the human genome, especially to long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Only a minority of known lncRNAs have been functionally characterised; however, a handful of these lncRNAs have already been linked to ageing-associated processes. To gain more information on the effects of ageing on lncRNAs, we identified from GTEx data lncRNAs tha...
Abstract We aimed to characterize the plasma redox homeostasis as underlying physiological mechanisms of specific training on healthy elderly. 51 healthy volunteers were trained to endurance, resistance, Neuro-Muscular Electrical Stimulation for 12 weeks, 3 sessions/w, all applied to lower limbs. We assessed ex-post quadriceps’ maximal voluntary contraction, handgrip strength, five-times-sit to stand and timed up-and-go tests, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl groups), antio...
Abstract Multi-omics approach nowadays increasingly applied to molecular research in many fields of life sciences. Biogerontology is not an exception; multi-omics gives possibility to evaluate complex biomarkers (or panels) which consist of quantitative as well as phenotypic ones. It is especially important because of weak understanding of the nature of aging. The difficulty now is distinguishing between causes and effects of aging. The application of the whole set of metabolome, methylome, tran...
Abstract Hearing disorders constitute one of the major health concerns in the USA. Decades of basic and clinical studies have identified numerous ototoxic agents and investigated their modes of action on the inner ear, utilizing tissue culture as well as animal and human models. Current preventive and therapeutic approaches are considered unsatisfactory. Therefore, additional modalities should be developed. Many studies suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and...
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, are considered prion-like disorders because they are all proteinopathies in which aberrant proteins spread throughout the brain during disease progression. The overall aim of this study is to determine how glial cells are commonly involved in the neurodegeneration progress observed in all these pathologies. The suggestion that they are cell types in which prion and prion-like disorders have common behaviour is the hypothes...
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