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Nature Communications
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Specimens below 50 kDa have generally been considered too small to be analyzed by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The high flexibility of pure RNAs makes it difficult to obtain high-resolution structures by cryo-EM. In bacteria, riboswitches regulate sulfur metabolism through binding to the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) ligand and offer compelling targets for new antibiotics. SAM-I, SAM-I/IV, and SAM-IV are the three most commonly found SAM riboswitches, but the structure of SAM...
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Although kidney parenchymal tissue can be generated in vitro, reconstructing the complex vasculature of the kidney remains a daunting task. The molecular pathways that specify and sustain functional, phenotypic and structural heterogeneity of the kidney vasculature are unknown. Here, we employ high-throughput bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing of the non-lymphatic endothelial cells (ECs) of the kidney to identify the molecular pathways that dictate vascular zonation from embryos to adulthood. W...
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Electrocatalysts often show increased conversion at nanoscale chemical or topographic surface inhomogeneities, resulting in spatially heterogeneous reactivity. Identifying reacting species locally with nanometer precision during chemical conversion is one of the biggest quests in electrochemical surface science to advance (electro)catalysis and related fields. Here, we demonstrate that electrochemical tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can be used for combined topography and reactivity imaging of e...
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The functional role of U2AF1 mutations in lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) remains incompletely understood. Here, we report a significant co-occurrence of U2AF1 S34F mutations with ROS1 translocations in LUADs. To characterize this interaction, we profiled effects of S34F on the transcriptome-wide distribution of RNA binding and alternative splicing in cells harboring the ROS1 translocation. Compared to its wild-type counterpart, U2AF1 S34F preferentially binds and modulates splicing of introns cont...
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The macromolecular machines of life use allosteric control to self-assemble, dissociate and change shape in response to signals. Despite enormous interest, the design of nanoscale allosteric assemblies has proven tremendously challenging. Here we present a proof of concept of allosteric assembly in which an engineered fold switch on the protein monomer triggers or blocks assembly. Our design is based on the hyper-stable, naturally monomeric protein CI2, a paradigm of simple two-state folding, an...
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Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3) is a rare monogenic disease caused by mutations in the ABCB4 gene, resulting in a reduction in biliary phosphatidylcholine. Reduced biliary phosphatidylcholine cannot counteract the detergent effects of bile salts, leading to cholestasis, cholangitis, cirrhosis and ultimately liver failure. Here, we report results from treating two- or five-week-old Abcb4−/− mice with an AAV vector expressing human ABCB4, resulting in significant decre...
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Stress leaves a lasting impression on an organism and reshapes future responses. However, the influence of past experience and stress hormones on the activity of neural stress circuits remains unclear. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons orchestrate behavioral and endocrine responses to stress and are themselves highly sensitive to corticosteroid (CORT) stress hormones. Here, using in vivo optical recordings, we find that CRH neurons are rapidly activated in response to st...
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To predict how monsoons will evolve in the 21st century, we need to understand how they have changed in the past. In paleoclimate literature, the major focus has been on the role of solar forcing on monsoons but not on the amplification by feedbacks internal to the climate system. Here we have used the results from a transient climate simulation to show that feedbacks amplify the effect of change in insolation on the Indian summer monsoon. We show that during the deglacial (22 ka to 10 ka) monso...
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