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Last. Christopher C. L. ChaseH-Index: 23
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral disease of cattle that causes immune dysfunction. Macrophages are the key cells for the initiation of the innate immunity and play an important role in viral pathogenesis. In this in vitro study, we studied the effect of the supernatant of BVDV-infected macrophage on immune dysfunction. We infected bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with high or low virulence strains of BVDV. The supernatant recovered from BVDV-infected MDM was used...
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#2Toshihiro MurataH-Index: 11
Last. Haruko OgawaH-Index: 17
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Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, w...
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#1Sebastian SchloerH-Index: 4
#2Jonas GoretzkoH-Index: 2
Last. Ursula RescherH-Index: 27
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Influenza virus infections and their associated morbidity and mortality are a major threat to global health. Vaccination is an effective influenza prevention measure; however, the effectiveness is challenged by the rapid changes in the influenza virus genome leading to viral adaptation. Emerging viral resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir limits the treatment of acute influenza infections. Targeting influenza virus‑host interactions is a new and emerging field, and therapies base...
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Initiation of host cell infection by an enveloped virus requires a viral-to-host cell membrane fusion event. This event is mediated by at least one viral transmembrane glycoprotein, termed the fusion protein, which is a key therapeutic target. Viral fusion proteins have been studied for decades, and numerous critical insights into their function have been elucidated. However, the transmembrane region remains one of the most poorly understood facets of these proteins. In the past ten years, the f...
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In an increasingly interconnected world, the exposure and subsequent spread of emergent viruses has become inevitable. This is particularly true for Aedes (Ae.) mosquito-vectored viruses, whose range has increased over the past decade from tropical to temperate regions. However, it is unclear if all populations of Ae. mosquitoes in temperate New York City are able to successfully replicate and transmit arboviruses. To answer this question, we reared Ae. albopictus mosquitoes living in a temperat...
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Negeviruses are a proposed group of insect-specific viruses that can be separated into two distinct phylogenetic clades, Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Negeviruses are well-known for their wide geographic distribution and broad host range among hematophagous insects. In this study, the full genomes of two novel negeviruses from each of these clades were identified by RNA extraction and sequencing from a single dungfly (Scathophaga furcata) collected from the Arctic Yellow River Station, where th...
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Viral vectored vaccines are desirable alternatives for conventional infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. We have recently shown that a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota expressing the spike (S) protein of IBV strain Mass-41 (rLaSota/IBV-S) was a promising vaccine candidate for IBV. Here we evaluated a novel chimeric rNDV/avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 (rNDV/APMV-2) as a vaccine vector against IBV. The rNDV/APMV-2 vector was chosen because it is much safer than the r...
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#2Eric S. PeeplesH-Index: 5
Last. Shilpa BuchH-Index: 42
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Almost all types of cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the extracellular space. EVs such as exosomes and microvesicles are membrane-bound vesicles ranging in size from 30 to 1000 nm in diameter. Under normal conditions, EVs mediate cell to cell as well as inter-organ communication via the shuttling of their cargoes which include RNA, DNA and proteins. Under pathological conditions, however, the number, size and content of EVs are found to be altered and have been shown to play cruci...
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#1Neil ParkinH-Index: 41
#2Santiago Avila-RiosH-Index: 13
Last. Rami KantorH-Index: 28
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly used for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping. NGS methods have the potential for a more sensitive detection of low-abundance variants (LAV) compared to standard Sanger sequencing (SS) methods. A standardized threshold for reporting LAV that generates data comparable to those derived from SS is needed to allow for the comparability of data from laboratories using NGS and SS. Ten HIV-1 specimens were tested in ten laboratories using Illumina MiSeq-base...
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Alphaviruses are globally distributed and predominately transmitted by mosquitoes. Aedes species are common vectors for the clinically important alphaviruses—Chikungunya, Sindbis, and Ross River (RRV) viruses—with Aedes aegypti also being a vector for the flaviviruses dengue, Yellow Fever, and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti was putatively implicated in the large 1979–1980 South Pacific Islands outbreak of RRV—the leading cause of arboviral disease in Australia today. The RNA interference (RNAi) defen...
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