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Neuron
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#1Dillan J. Newbold (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 4
#2Timothy O. Laumann (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 23
Last. Derek Miller (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 10
view all 24 authors...
Summary To induce brain plasticity in humans, we casted the dominant upper extremity for 2 weeks and tracked changes in functional connectivity using daily 30-min scans of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Casting caused cortical and cerebellar regions controlling the disused extremity to functionally disconnect from the rest of the somatomotor system, while internal connectivity within the disused sub-circuit was maintained. Functional disconnection was evident within 48 h, progressed thr...
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#1Richard G. Held (Harvard University)H-Index: 5
#2Changliang Liu (Harvard University)H-Index: 5
Last. Toni Schneider (University of Cologne)H-Index: 33
view all 13 authors...
Summary Presynaptic CaV2 channels are essential for Ca2+-triggered exocytosis. In addition, there are two competing models for their roles in synapse structure. First, Ca2+ channels or Ca2+ entry may control synapse assembly. Second, active zone proteins may scaffold CaV2s to presynaptic release sites, and synapse structure is CaV2 independent. Here, we ablated all three CaV2s using conditional knockout in cultured hippocampal neurons or at the calyx of Held, which abolished evoked exocytosis. C...
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#1Sergey Anpilov (Weizmann Institute of Science)H-Index: 1
#2Yair Shemesh (Weizmann Institute of Science)H-Index: 4
Last. Rosa-Eva Hüttl (Weizmann Institute of Science)
view all 18 authors...
Summary Complex behavioral phenotyping techniques are becoming more prevalent in the field of behavioral neuroscience, and thus methods for manipulating neuronal activity must be adapted to fit into such paradigms. Here, we present a head-mounted, magnetically activated device for wireless optogenetic manipulation that is compact, simple to construct, and suitable for use in group-living mice in an enriched semi-natural arena over several days. Using this device, we demonstrate that repeated act...
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#1Florentina Soto (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 11
#2Jen-Chun Hsiang (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 1
Last. Daniel KerschensteinerH-Index: 17
view all 9 authors...
Summary In humans, midget and parasol ganglion cells account for most of the input from the eyes to the brain. Yet, how they encode visual information is unknown. Here, we perform large-scale multi-electrode array recordings from retinas of treatment-naive patients who underwent enucleation surgery for choroidal malignant melanomas. We identify robust differences in the function of midget and parasol ganglion cells, consistent asymmetries between their ON and OFF types (that signal light increme...
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#1Hyun-Sik YangH-Index: 8
#2Charles C. White (Columbia University)
Last. Reisa A. SperlingH-Index: 90
view all 14 authors...
Summary Here, we perform a genome-wide screen for variants that regulate the expression of gene co-expression modules in the aging human brain; we discover and replicate such variants in the TMEM106B and RBFOX1 loci. The TMEM106B haplotype is known to influence the accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy, and the haplotype's large-scale transcriptomic effects include the dysregulation of lysosomal genes and alterations in synaptic gene splicing that are also seen in...
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#1Fabio Stefanini (Columbia University)H-Index: 11
#2Lyudmila Kushnir ('ENS Paris': École Normale Supérieure)H-Index: 1
Last. Stefano Fusi (Columbia University)H-Index: 35
view all 9 authors...
Summary Neurons are often considered specialized functional units that encode a single variable. However, many neurons are observed to respond to a mix of disparate sensory, cognitive, and behavioral variables. For such representations, information is distributed across multiple neurons. Here we find this distributed code in the dentate gyrus and CA1 subregions of the hippocampus. Using calcium imaging in freely moving mice, we decoded an animal’s position, direction of motion, and speed from th...
2 CitationsSource
#1Abigail A. Russo (Columbia University)H-Index: 3
#2Ramin Khajeh (Columbia University)H-Index: 1
Last. Mark M. Churchland (Columbia University)H-Index: 31
view all 7 authors...
Summary The supplementary motor area (SMA) is believed to contribute to higher order aspects of motor control. We considered a key higher order role: tracking progress throughout an action. We propose that doing so requires population activity to display low "trajectory divergence": situations with different future motor outputs should be distinct, even when present motor output is identical. We examined neural activity in SMA and primary motor cortex (M1) as monkeys cycled various distances thr...
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#1Deependra Kumar (University of Tsukuba)H-Index: 2
#2Iyo Koyanagi (University of Tsukuba)H-Index: 1
Last. Masafumi Muratani (University of Tsukuba)H-Index: 13
view all 26 authors...
Summary The occurrence of dreaming during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep prompts interest in the role of REM sleep in hippocampal-dependent episodic memory. Within the mammalian hippocampus, the dentate gyrus (DG) has the unique characteristic of exhibiting neurogenesis persisting into adulthood. Despite their small numbers and sparse activity, adult-born neurons (ABNs) in the DG play critical roles in memory; however, their memory function during sleep is unknown. Here, we investigate whether y...
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#1Hao Wang (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 19
#2Ping Dong (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 3
Last. Shu-Xia Cao (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 3
view all 14 authors...
Summary Pain is a source of substantial discomfort. Abnormal activity in both the zona incerta (ZI) and posterior complex of the thalamus (Po) are implicated in neuropathic pain, but their exact roles remain unclear. In particular, the precise cell types and molecular mechanisms of the ZI-Po circuit that regulate nociception are largely uncharacterized. Here, we found that parvalbumin (PV)-positive neuronal projections from the ventral ZI (ZIv) to the Po (ZIv-Po) are critical for promoting nocif...
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#1Emily R. Liman (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 32
Detection of NaCl by the gustatory system is fundamental for salt intake and tissue homeostasis. Yet, signal transduction mechanisms for salty taste have remained obscure. In this issue of Neuron, Nomura et al. (2020) report that the epithelial sodium channel ENaC, which serves as the salty receptor, is co-expressed with the voltage-activated ATP release channel CALHM1/3 in a subset of taste cells and that these cells mediate amiloride-sensitive salty taste.
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