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Current opinion in behavioral sciences
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#1Kristina Woodard (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 1
#2Seth D. Pollak (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 44
During sensitive periods an individual’s development is especially receptive to information from the environment in ways that it is not at earlier and later developmental stages. Here, we describe challenges in applying the concept of sensitive periods to the domain of socio-emotional development, review what applications of this approach have accomplished, and point to promising future directions. We also argue that since emotional development consists of higher-order cognitive processes, it li...
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Adult ability in complex cognitive domains, including music performance, is commonly thought of as the product of gene-environment interactions, where genetic predispositions influence and are modulated by experience resulting in the final phenotypic expression. Recently, however, the important contribution of maturation to gene-environment interactions has become better understood. Thus the timing of exposure to specific experience, such as music training, has been shown to produce long-term im...
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#1Olivier PascalisH-Index: 38
#2Mathilde Fort (University of Lyon)
Last. Paul C. Quinn (UD: University of Delaware)H-Index: 45
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The existence of critical or sensitive periods has been argued for cognitive functions such as language, which allows for communication with conspecifics. Faces also play a crucial role in establishing social communication. Here we discuss if critical or sensitive period concepts apply to face processing. We describe how experience shapes face processing during development. While there is not clear support for a critical period, there is some evidence of a sensitive period, with the face process...
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A burgeoning literature has recently begun investigating the links between socioeconomic inequality and the developing brain. This work suggests widespread disparities in both brain structure and function that begin as early as the first year of life. Here, we review disparities in neural structure that have been reported in both cortical and subcortical gray matter, as well as in white matter. Disparities in brain function have also been reported, particularly in circuits that support language,...
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Curiosity is associated with increased learning, and developing curious individuals is an educational goal in its own right. This review uses Bioecological Systems Theory to examine how students’ curiosity can be supported in educational contexts. Understanding the nature of curiosity as a biopsychosocial characteristic that can change over time and its relation to other characteristics such as knowledge and epistemic beliefs provides insight into why some students may be more curious than other...
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#1Paul J. Silvia (UNCG: University of North Carolina at Greensboro)H-Index: 60
#2Alexander P. Christensen (UNCG: University of North Carolina at Greensboro)H-Index: 8
The study of trait curiosity — individual differences in curious thoughts, feelings, and actions — sorts into two approaches. One looks downward by unpacking and differentiating trait curiosity, with an emphasis on curiosity’s facets, kinds, and parts. Another looks upward by locating trait curiosity within the larger structure of global personality traits. This article reviews research that looks upward by locating curiosity within modern models of Openness to Experience. Our review indicates (...
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Infants are highly curious and show remarkable self-driven learning capabilities. Inspired by developmental psychology and recent advances in neuroscience, computational models of curiosity have been implemented in robots. These models are based on the paradigm that learning progress generates intrinsic rewards, which in turn determine action selection. With the rise of deep learning, robots’ perceptual and behavioral learning capabilities have facilitated the appearance of infant-like curiosity...
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#1Emily Liquin (Princeton University)H-Index: 2
#2Tania Lombrozo (Princeton University)H-Index: 23
Children are known for asking ‘why?’ — a query motivated by their desire for explanations. Research suggests that explanation-seeking curiosity (ESC) is triggered by first-person cues (such as novelty or surprise), third-person cues (such as a knowledgeable adults’ surprise or question), and future-oriented cues (such as expectations about information gain or future value). Once triggered, ESC is satisfied by an adequate explanation, typically obtained through causal intervention or question ask...
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