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#1Vincent Otieno (UoN: University of Nairobi)H-Index: 2
#2Alfred T. Agwanda Otieno (UoN: University of Nairobi)H-Index: 1
Last.Anne Khasakhala (UoN: University of Nairobi)H-Index: 6
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Background: There has been continuous debate among scholars regarding fertility transition in Africa. Two conclusions emerge: slow pace of decline because of weak facilitating social programs and high demand for large families amidst weak family planning programs. Accelerated fertility decline is expected to occur if there is both substantial decline in desired fertility and increased level of preference implementation. Despite these conclusions, there are also emergent exceptions in Africa, eve...
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#1Niradiz Reyes (University of Cartagena)H-Index: 8
#2Oscar Montes (University of Cartagena)
Last.Robert D. Burk (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 92
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Background: The anterior nares are the main ecological niche for Staphylococcus aureus , an important commensal and opportunistic pathogen. Medical students are frequently colonized by a variety of pathogens. Microbial interactions in the human nose can prevent or favor colonization by pathogens, and individuals colonized by pathogens have increased risk of infection and are the source of transmission to other community members or susceptible individuals. According to recent studies, the microbi...
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#1José Carlos Crispín (Tec: Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education)
#2George C. Tsokos (Harvard University)H-Index: 71
Clinical success attained in patients with cancer treated with checkpoint inhibitors has renewed the interest in the immune system and in particular in T cells as a therapeutic tool to eliminate tumors. Here, we discuss recent studies that evaluate the anti-tumor role of CD8 T cells and the mechanisms that interfere with this function. In particular, we review recent literature that has reported on the phenotype and transcriptome of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells and deciphered the mechanisms as...
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#1Octavian Andronic (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 2
#2Haitham Shoman (University of Cambridge)
Last.Vikas Khanduja (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 14
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Background: Core decompression is a hip preserving surgical procedure that is used to treat avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. The eventual clinical and radiological outcome following this procedure is varied in literature. Also, the time to a total hip replacement (THR) from the index procedure and the percentage of patients subsequently undergoing a THR is controversial. Furthermore, there are multiple surgical methods along with multiple augmentation techniques and various classifi...
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#1Cristiana Santos de Macedo (FIOCRUZ: Oswaldo Cruz Foundation)H-Index: 4
#2Flávio Alves Lara (FIOCRUZ: Oswaldo Cruz Foundation)H-Index: 18
Last.Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani (FIOCRUZ: Oswaldo Cruz Foundation)H-Index: 22
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Chronic infection by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae may lead to the development of leprosy. Of note, in the lepromatous clinical form of the disease, failure of the immune system to constrain infection allows the pathogen to reproduce to very high numbers with minimal clinical signs, favoring transmission. The bacillus can modulate cellular metabolism to support its survival, and these changes directly influence immune responses, leading to host tolerance, permanent dis...
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#1Robert L. Kruse (Johns Hopkins University)
A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) originating in Wuhan, China presents a potential respiratory viral pandemic to the world population. Current efforts are focused on containment and quarantine of infected individuals. Ultimately, the outbreak could be controlled with a protective vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. While vaccine research should be pursued intensely, there exists today no therapy to treat 2019-nCoV upon infection, despite an urgent need to find options to help these patients an...
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#1Alessio Fasano (Harvard University)H-Index: 85
Improved hygiene leading to reduced exposure to microorganisms has been implicated as one possible cause for the recent “epidemic” of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) in industrialized countries. That is the essence of the hygiene hypothesis that argues that rising incidence of CIDs may be, at least in part, the result of lifestyle and environmental changes that have made us too “clean” for our own good, so causing changes in our microbiota. Apart from genetic makeup and exposure to environm...
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#1Yiwei Wang (UA: University of Arizona)
#2Aarti Mishra (UA: University of Arizona)
Last.Roberta Diaz Brinton (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 57
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The brain undergoes two aging programs: chronological and endocrinological. This is particularly evident in the female brain, which undergoes programs of aging associated with reproductive competency. Comprehensive understanding of the dynamic metabolic and neuroinflammatory aging process in the female brain can illuminate windows of opportunities to promote healthy brain aging. Bioenergetic crisis and chronic low-grade inflammation are hallmarks of brain aging and menopause and have been implic...
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#1Rachel DrysdaleH-Index: 1
#2Jo McEntyreH-Index: 2
Last.Niklas BlombergH-Index: 22
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#1Donna C. Tippett (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 14
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is classified into three variants, logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA), nonfluent agrammatic PPA (nfaPPA), and semantic variant PPA (svPPA), based on clinical (syndromic) characteristics with support from neuroimaging and/or underlying neuropathology. Classification of PPA variants provides information valuable to disease management. International consensus criteria are widely employed to identify PPA subtypes; however, classification is complex, and some individuals ...
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