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Faithful maintenance of genomic imprinting is essential for mammalian development. While germline DNA methylation–dependent (canonical) imprinting is relatively stable during development, the recently found oocyte-derived H3K27me3-mediated noncanonical imprinting is mostly transient in early embryos, with some genes important for placental development maintaining imprinted expression in the extraembryonic lineage. How these noncanonical imprinted genes maintain their extraembryonic-specific impr...
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Novel robotic, bioelectronic, and diagnostic systems require a variety of compact and high-performance sensors. Among them, compact three-dimensional (3D) vector angular encoders are required to determine spatial position and orientation in a 3D environment. However, fabrication of 3D vector sensors is a challenging task associated with time-consuming and expensive, sequential processing needed for the orientation of individual sensor elements in 3D space. In this work, we demonstrate the potent...
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For early-stage diagnostics, there is a strong demand for sensors that can rapidly detect biomarkers at ultralow concentration or even at the single-molecule level. Compared with other types of sensors, optical microfibers are more convenient for use as point-of-care devices in early-stage diagnostics. However, the relatively low sensitivity strongly hinders their use. To this end, an optical microfiber is functionalized with a plasmonic nanointerface consisting of black phosphorus–supported Au ...
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Chiral fermions in solid state feature “Fermi arc” states, connecting the surface projections of the bulk chiral nodes. The surface Fermi arc is a signature of nontrivial bulk topology. Unconventional chiral fermions with an extensive Fermi arc traversing the whole Brillouin zone have been theoretically proposed in CoSi. Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy to investigate quasiparticle interference at various terminations of a CoSi single crystal. The observed surface states e...
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Thomas E. Lovejoy Carlos Nobre Although 2019 was not the worst year for fire or deforestation in the Amazon, it was the year when the extent of fires and deforestation in the region garnered full global attention. This year, the winds brought smoke from the fires into Sao Paulo, so thick that—after encountering moist air blowing from the ocean—the afternoon skies were darkened and street lights had to be lit 3 hours early for the city to continue to function. The rampant winds awoke the Brazilia...
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Deformation associated with plate convergence at subduction zones is accommodated by a complex system involving fault slip and viscoelastic flow. These processes have proven difficult to disentangle. The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake occurred close to the Chilean coast within a dense network of continuously recording Global Positioning System stations, which provide a comprehensive history of surface strain. We use these data to assemble a detailed picture of a structurally controlled megathrust ...
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Vertebrate embryonic dorsoventral axis is robustly stable in the face of variations in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, the molecular mechanism behind this robustness remains uncharacterized. In this study, we show that zebrafish Pinhead, together with Admp, plays an important compensatory role in ensuring the robustness of axial patterning through fine-tuning of BMP signaling. pinhead encodes a BMP-like ligand expressed in the ventrolateral margin of the early gastrula. Tran...
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Genomes carry millions of noncoding variants, and identifying the tiny fraction with functional consequences is a major challenge for genomics. We assessed the role of selection on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for domestication-related changes in rice grains. Among 3363 lncRNA transcripts identified in early developing panicles, 95% of those with differential expression (329 lncRNAs) between Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and wild rice were significantly down-regulated in the domestication event. J...
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Children’s metabolic energy expenditure is central to evolutionary and epidemiological frameworks for understanding variation in human phenotype and health. Nonetheless, the impact of a physically active lifestyle and heavy burden of infectious disease on child metabolism remains unclear. Using energetic, activity, and biomarker measures, we show that Shuar forager-horticulturalist children of Amazonian Ecuador are ~25% more physically active and, in association with immune activity, have ~20% g...
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