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Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and survivin reside in both the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments under physiological conditions. They can form HSP60-survivin complexes through protein–protein interactions. Their expression levels in cancer tissues are positively correlated and higher expression of either protein is associated with poor clinical prognosis. The subcellular location of HSP60-survivin complex in either the cytosol or mitochondria is cell type-dependent, while the biological si...
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Changes in phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) concentrations secondary to variations in glucose availability can regulate calcium signaling in T cells as this metabolite potently inhibits the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+/ATPase pump (SERCA). This regulation is critical to assert immune activation in the tumor as T cells and cancer cells compete for available nutrients. We examined here whether cytosolic calcium and the activation of downstream effector pathways important for tumor biology are influenced b...
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Interleukin (IL)-18 expression in synovial tissue correlates with the severity of joint inflammation and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of the IL-18/IL-18 receptor-alpha (Rα) signaling pathway in autoimmune arthritis is unknown. Wild-type (WT) and IL-18Rα knockout (KO) mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen before the onset of arthritis induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. Disease activity was evaluated by semiquantitative scoring and histologic assessm...
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The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of extracellular matrix proteins, immune cells, vascular cells, lymphatics and fibroblasts. Under normal physiological conditions, tissue homeostasis protects against tumor development. However, under pathological conditions, interplay between the tumor and its microenvironment can promote tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. Immune cells within the TME have an important role in the formation, growth and metastasis of tumors, and in the responsivenes...
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Homeobox protein B13 (HOXB13), a transcription factor, is related to methylmercury toxicity; however, the downstream factors involved in enhancing methylmercury toxicity remain unknown. We performed microarray analysis to search for downstream factors whose expression is induced by methylmercury via HOXB13 in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), which are useful model cells for analyzing molecular mechanisms. Methylmercury induced the expression of oncostatin M (OSM), a cytokine of the interle...
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PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase 1), mainly known for its protective role in DNA repair, also regulates inflammatory processes. Notably, defects in DNA repair and chronic inflammation may both predispose to cancer development. On the other hand, inhibition of DNA repair and inflammatory responses can be beneficial in cancer therapy and PARP inhibitors are currently used for their lethal effects on tumor cells. Furthermore, excess of PARP-1 activity has been associated with many tumors and inf...
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During tumor progression, hypoxia, nutrient deprivation or changes in the extracellular environment (i.e., induced by anti-cancer drugs) elicit adaptive responses in cancer cells. Cellular plasticity increases the chance that tumor cells may survive in a challenging microenvironment, acquire new mechanisms of resistance to conventional drugs, and spread to distant sites. Re-activation of stem pathways appears as a significant cause of cellular plasticity because it promotes the acquisition of st...
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Heart diseases such as myocardial infarction and myocardial ischemia are paroxysmal and fatal in clinical practice. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells provide a promising approach to myocardium regeneration therapy. Identifying the maturity level of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) is currently the main challenge for pathophysiology and therapeutics. In this review, we describe current maturity indicators for cardiac microtissue and...
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Albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, not only controls osmotic blood pressure, but also serves as a carrier for various small molecules, including pharmaceuticals. Its impact on pharmacological properties of many drugs has been extensively studied over decades. Here, we focus on its interaction with the following mobilizing agents: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and AMD3100, where such analyses are lacking. These compounds are widely used for hematopoietic stem cell mobiliza...
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Despite the clinical importance of arteriogenesis, this biological process is poorly understood. ERK1 and ERK2 are key components of a major intracellular signaling pathway activated by vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) and FGF2, growth factors critical to arteriogenesis. To investigate the specific role of each ERK isoform in arteriogenesis, we used mice with a global Erk1 knockout as well as Erk1 and Erk2 floxed mice to delete Erk1 or Erk2 in endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle ...
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