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arXiv: Neurons and Cognition
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#1Karl J. FristonH-Index: 193
#2Erik D. FagerholmH-Index: 6
Last. Adeel RaziH-Index: 20
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At the inception of human brain mapping, two principles of functional anatomy underwrote most conceptions - and analyses - of distributed brain responses: namely functional segregation and integration. There are currently two main approaches to characterising functional integration. The first is a mechanistic modelling of connectomics in terms of directed effective connectivity that mediates neuronal message passing and dynamics on neuronal circuits. The second phenomenological approach usually ...
We revisit the role of instrumental value as a driver of adaptive behavior. In active inference, instrumental or extrinsic value is quantified by the information-theoretic surprisal of a set of observations measuring the extent to which those observations conform to prior beliefs or preferences. That is, an agent is expected to seek the type of evidence that is consistent with its own model of the world. For reinforcement learning tasks, the distribution of preferences replaces the notion of rew...
Understanding of the evolved biological function of NREM and slow wave sleep has advanced considerably in the past decade. However, no equivalent understanding of REM sleep and dreams has emerged. Contemporary neuroscientific theories generally view dreams as epiphenomena, and the few proposals for their biological function are contradicted by the phenomenology of dreams themselves. Now, the recent advent of deep neural networks (DNNs) has finally provided the novel conceptual framework within w...
#2Karl J. FristonH-Index: 193
Last. Inês HipólitoH-Index: 2
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The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to assess whether the construct of neural representations plays an explanatory role under the variational free-energy principle and its corollary process theory, active inference; and (2) if so, to assess which philosophical stance - in relation to the ontological and epistemological status of representations - is most appropriate. We focus on non-realist (deflationary and fictionalist-instrumentalist) approaches. We consider a deflationary account of mental...
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) arose as systems that merge computing systems with the human brain to facilitate recording, stimulation, and inhibition of neural activity. Over the years, the development of BCI technologies has shifted towards miniaturization of devices that can be seamlessly embedded into the brain and can target single neuron or small population sensing and control. We present a motivating example highlighting vulnerabilities of two promising micron-scale BCI technologies, dem...
Objective: To determine whether brain volume is associated with functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of the multi-site, international hospital-based MRI-GENetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study (July 1, 2014- March 16, 2019) with clinical brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained on admission for index stroke and functional outcome assessment. Post-stroke outcome was determined using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score (0...
Functional and effective networks inferred from time series are at the core of network neuroscience. Since it is common practice to compare network properties between patients and controls, it is crucial for inferred network models to reflect key underlying structural properties. However, even a few spurious links severely distort the shortest-path length and derived measures including the small-world coefficient, providing misleading insights into the macroscopic topology of the network. This p...
#1Thomas W. OwenH-Index: 1
#2Jane de TisiH-Index: 9
Last. Peter R. TaylorH-Index: 36
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Previous studies investigating associations between white matter alterations and duration of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown differing results, and were typically limited to univariate analyses of tracts in isolation. In this study we apply a multivariate measure (the Mahalanobis distance), to capture the distinct ways white matter may differ in individual patients, and relate this to epilepsy duration. Diffusion MRI, from a cohort of 94 subjects (28 healthy controls, 33 left-TLE and 33 ...
The human brain displays rich communication dynamics that are thought to be particularly well-reflected in its marked community structure. Yet, the precise relationship between community structure in structural brain networks and the communication dynamics that can emerge therefrom is not well-understood. In addition to offering insight into the structure-function relationship of networked systems, such an understanding is a critical step towards the ability to manipulate the brain's large-scale...
#1Tiberiu TesileanuH-Index: 10
#2Mary M. ConteH-Index: 21
Last. Vijay BalasubramanianH-Index: 52
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Previously, in (Hermundstad et al., 2014), we showed that when sampling is limiting, the efficient coding principle leads to a "variance is salience" hypothesis, and that this hypothesis accounts for visual sensitivity to binary image statistics. Here, using extensive new psychophysical data and image analysis, we show that this hypothesis accounts for visual sensitivity to a large set of grayscale image statistics at a striking level of detail, and also identify the limits of the prediction. We...
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