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PLOS Pathogens
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The enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the related plague agent Y. pestis require the Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS) to subvert phagocyte defense mechanisms and cause disease. Yet type III secretion (T3S) in Yersinia induces growth arrest and innate immune recognition, necessitating tight regulation of the T3SS. Here we show that Y. pseudotuberculosis T3SS expression is kept low under anaerobic, iron-rich conditions, such as those found in the intestinal lumen where the Yersini...
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Upon host cell infection, the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii resides and multiplies within the Coxiella–Containing Vacuole (CCV). The nascent CCV progresses through the endosomal maturation pathway into a phagolysosome, acquiring endosomal and lysosomal markers, as well as acidic pH and active proteases and hydrolases. Approximately 24–48 hours post infection, heterotypic fusion between the CCV and host endosomes/lysosomes leads to CCV expansion and bacterial replication in t...
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Viral and/or host factors that are directly responsible for the acute versus chronic outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have not been identified yet. Information on immune response during the early stages of HBV infection in humans is mainly derived from blood samples of patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB), which are usually obtained after the onset of clinical symptoms. Features of intrahepatic immune response in these patients are less studied due to the difficulty of obtaining mul...
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We report here two cases of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) in adult patients with very rare, previously uncharacterized, non synonymous heterozygous G634R and R203W substitution in mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 (MASP2), a gene encoding a key protease of the lectin pathway of the complement system. None of the 2 patients had variants in genes involved in the TLR3-interferon signaling pathway. Both MASP2 variants induced functional defects in vitro, including a reduced (R203W) o...
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Ecotin is a serine protease inhibitor produced by hundreds of microbial species, including pathogens. Here we show, that ecotin orthologs from Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Leishmania major are potent inhibitors of MASP-1 and MASP-2, the two key activator proteases of the complement lectin pathway. Factor D is the key activator protease of another complement activation route, the alternative pathway. We show that ecotin inhibits MASP-3, which is the sole factor D ...
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GdhR is a GntR-type regulator of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encoded by a gene (gdhR) belonging to the MtrR regulon, which comprises multiple genes required for antibiotic resistance such as the mtrCDE efflux pump genes. In previous work we showed that loss of gdhR results in enhanced gonococcal fitness in a female mouse model of lower genital tract infection. Here, we used RNA-Seq to perform a transcriptional profiling study to determine the GdhR regulon. GdhR was found to regulate the expression of ...
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Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are widely used for the control of a broad range of fungal diseases. This has been the most rapidly expanding fungicide group in terms of new molecules discovered and introduced for agricultural use over the past fifteen years. A particular pattern of differential sensitivity (resistance) to the stretched heterocycle amide SDHIs (SHA-SDHIs), a subclass of chemically-related SDHIs, was observed in naive Zymoseptoria tritici populations not previ...
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Tailed bacteriophages (phages) are one of the most abundant life forms on Earth. They encode highly efficient molecular machines to infect bacteria, but the initial interactions between a phage and a bacterium that then lead to irreversible virus attachment and infection are poorly understood. This information is critically needed to engineer machines with novel host specificities in order to combat antibiotic resistance, a major threat to global health today. The tailed phage T4 encodes a speci...
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Cellular response to environmental challenges requires immediate and precise regulation of transcriptional programs. During viral infections, this includes the expression of antiviral genes that are essential to combat the pathogen. Transcribed mRNAs are bound and escorted to the cytoplasm by the cap-binding complex (CBC). We recently identified a protein complex consisting of NCBP1 and NCBP3 that, under physiological conditions, has redundant function to the canonical CBC, consisting of NCBP1 a...
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