PLOS Medicine
Papers 4096
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#1Jacob Fredsøe (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 5
#2Jan Koetsenruyter (AU: Aarhus University)
Last.Flemming Bro (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 18
view all 9 authors...
Background Assessing genetic lifetime risk for prostate cancer has been proposed as a means of risk stratification to identify those for whom prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is likely to be most valuable. This project aimed to test the effect of introducing a genetic test for lifetime risk of prostate cancer in general practice on future PSA testing. Methods and findings We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of general practices (73 in each of...
#1Aziz Sheikh (Edin.: University of Edinburgh)H-Index: 90
In this Perspective, Aziz Sheikh discusses the importance of research to understand the impact of air pollution on human health, commenting on a study by Yaohua Tian and colleagues that examined associations between ambient air quality and risk of hospitalization for pneumonia in adults in China
#1Eirik Degerud (FHI: Norwegian Institute of Public Health)H-Index: 2
#2Gudrun Høiseth (University of Oslo)H-Index: 18
Last.Øyvind Næss (University of Oslo)H-Index: 24
view all 8 authors...
Background The disease burden attributable to mental health problems and to excess or harmful alcohol use is considerable. Despite a strong relationship between these 2 important factors in population health, there are few studies quantifying the mortality risk associated with their co-occurrence in the general population. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality according to self-reported mental health problems and alcohol intake in...
#1Josephine S. van de Maat (Boston Children's Hospital)
#2Daphne Peeters (Boston Children's Hospital)
view all 14 authors...
Background Optimising the use of antibiotics is a key component of antibiotic stewardship. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common reason for antibiotic prescription in children, even though most of these infections in children under 5 years are viral. This study aims to safely reduce antibiotic prescriptions in children under 5 years with suspected lower RTI at the emergency department (ED), by implementing a clinical decision rule. Methods and findings In a stepped-wedge cluste...
#1Jayne F. Tierney (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 39
#2David Fisher (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 13
Last.M K B Parmar (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 68
view all 5 authors...
Background It remains unclear when standard systematic reviews and meta-analyses that rely on published aggregate data (AD) can provide robust clinical conclusions. We aimed to compare the results from a large cohort of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data (IPD) with meta-analyses of published AD, to establish when the latter are most likely to be reliable and when the IPD approach might be required. Methods and findings We used 18 cancer systematic reviews t...
#1Karin Sundström (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 16
#2K. Miriam Elfström (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 11
With major advances in understanding the infectious etiology of cervical cancer, preventive medicine has obtained highly promising new tools. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, together with a growing arsenal of HPV-based screening tests, have the potential to radically change public health but require diligent, large-scale implementation to reach the final goal: the elimination of cervical cancer. We reflect here upon the state of cervical cancer prevention globally as there have been several...
#1Uma V. Mahajan (NIH: National Institutes of Health)
#2Vijay R. Varma (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 4
Last.Richard O'Brien (Duke University)H-Index: 52
view all 13 authors...
Background There is growing evidence that Alzheimer disease (AD) is a pervasive metabolic disorder with dysregulation in multiple biochemical pathways underlying its pathogenesis. Understanding how perturbations in metabolism are related to AD is critical to identifying novel targets for disease-modifying therapies. In this study, we test whether AD pathogenesis is associated with dysregulation in brain transmethylation and polyamine pathways. Methods and findings We first performed targeted and...
#1Giorgia Sulis (McGill University)H-Index: 1
#2Madhukar Pai (McGill University)H-Index: 78
Giorgia Sulis and Madhukar Pai discuss the global distribution, and approaches to diagnosis and treatment, of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis,
#1Anna S. Dean (WHO: World Health Organization)H-Index: 9
#2Matteo Zignol (WHO: World Health Organization)H-Index: 35
Last.Nazir Ahmed IsmailH-Index: 18
view all 16 authors...
Background The surveillance of drug resistance among tuberculosis (TB) patients is central to combatting the global TB epidemic and preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Isoniazid and rifampicin are two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medicines, and resistance to either of them increases the risk of treatment failure, relapse, or acquisition of resistance to other drugs. The global prevalence of rifampicin resistance is well documented, occurring in 3.4% (95% CI 2.5%–4.4%) o...
1 CitationsSource
#1Jinlei Qi (CCDC: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 9
#2Zengliang Ruan (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 4
Last.Hualiang Lin (SYSU: Sun Yat-sen University)H-Index: 33
view all 8 authors...
Background Ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) is one leading cause of disease burden, but no study has quantified the association between daily PM2.5 exposure and life expectancy. We aimed to assess the potential benefits in life expectancy by attaining the daily PM2.5 standards in 72 cities of China during 2013–2016. Methods and findings We applied a two-stage approach for the analysis. At the first stage, we used a generalized additive model (GAM) with a Gaussian link to examine...
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