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Comprehensive Physiology
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#1Gloria E. Hoffman (MSU: Morgan State University)H-Index: 59
The scientific community has searched for years for ways of examining neuronal tissue to track neural activity with reliable anatomical markers for stimulated neuronal activity. Existing studies that focused on hypothalamic systems offer a few options but do not always compare approaches or validate them for dependence on cell firing, leaving the reader uncertain of the benefits and limitations of each method. Thus, in this article, potential markers will be presented and, where possible, placed...
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#1Zhihong Zheng (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 1
#2Enguo Chen (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 5
Last. Yan Lu (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 32
view all 8 authors...
Single-cell sequencing measures the sequence information from individual cells using optimized single-cell isolation protocols and next-generation sequencing technologies. Recent advancement in single-cell sequencing has transformed biomedical research, providing insights into diverse biological processes such as mammalian development, immune system function, cellular diversity and heterogeneity, and disease pathogenesis. In this article, we introduce and describe popular commercial platforms fo...
5 CitationsSource
#1Douglas L. Crawford (UM: University of Miami)H-Index: 31
#2Patricia M. Schulte (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 47
Last. Marjorie F. Oleksiak (UM: University of Miami)H-Index: 26
view all 4 authors...
By investigating evolutionary adaptations that change physiological functions, we can enhance our understanding of how organisms work, the importance of physiological traits, and the genes that influence these traits. This approach of investigating the evolution of physiological adaptation has been used with the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus and has produced insights into (i) how protein polymorphisms enhance swimming and development; (ii) the role of equilibrium enzymes in modulating metab...
2 CitationsSource
#1Ellen M. Davis (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 2
#2Darleen A. Sandoval (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 35
GLP-1 was described as an incretin over 30 years ago. GLP-1 is encoded by the preproglucagon gene (Gcg), which is expressed in the intestine, the pancreas, and the central nervous system. GLP-1 activates GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) on the beta-cell to induce insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. GLP-1 also inhibits alpha-cell secretion of glucagon. As few, if any, GLP-1r are expressed on alpha-cells, indirect regulation, via beta- or delta-cell products has been thought to be the primary...
2 CitationsSource
#1Anjaneyulu Kowluru (Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences)H-Index: 35
Glucose-induced (physiological) insulin secretion from the islet beta-cell involves interplay between cationic (i.e., changes in intracellular calcium) and metabolic (i.e., generation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic second messengers) events. A large body of evidence affirms support for novel regulation, by G proteins, of specific intracellular signaling events, including actin cytoskeletal remodeling, transport of insulin-containing granules to the plasma membrane for fusion, and secretion of in...
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Air-breathing animals do not experience hyperoxia (inspired O2 > 21%) in nature, but preterm and full-term infants often experience hyperoxia/hyperoxemia in clinical settings. This article focuses on the effects of normobaric hyperoxia during the perinatal period on breathing in humans and other mammals, with an emphasis on the neural control of breathing during hyperoxia, after return to normoxia, and in response to subsequent hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. Acute hyperoxia typically evokes...
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#1Joshua H. Jones (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 2
#2Richard D. Minshall (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 53
Transcytosis of macromolecules through lung endothelial cells is the primary route of transport from the vascular compartment into the interstitial space. Endothelial transcytosis is mostly a caveolae-dependent process that combines receptor-mediated endocytosis, vesicle trafficking via actin-cytoskeletal remodeling, and SNARE protein directed vesicle fusion and exocytosis. Herein, we review the current literature on caveolae-mediated endocytosis, the role of actin cytoskeleton in caveolae stabi...
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#1Asish Dasgupta (Queen's University)H-Index: 10
#2Danchen Wu (Queen's University)H-Index: 7
Last. Charles C. T. Hindmarch (Queen's University)H-Index: 4
view all 11 authors...
In lung vascular cells, mitochondria serve a canonical metabolic role, governing energy homeostasis. In addition, mitochondria exist in dynamic networks, which serve noncanonical functions, including regulation of redox signaling, cell cycle, apoptosis, and mitochondrial quality control. Mitochondria in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) are oxygen sensors and initiate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Acquired dysfunction of mitochondrial metabolism and dynamics contribute to a canc...
2 CitationsSource
#1Stefano GarofaloH-Index: 6
#2Katherine Picard (Laval University)H-Index: 2
Last. Marie-Ève Tremblay (Laval University)H-Index: 31
view all 6 authors...
Sleep is a naturally occurring physiological state that is required to sustain physical and mental health. Traditionally viewed as strictly regulated by top-down control mechanisms, sleep is now known to also originate locally. Glial cells are emerging as important contributors to the regulation of sleep-wake cycles, locally and among dedicated neural circuits. A few pioneering studies revealed that astrocytes and microglia may influence sleep pressure, duration as well as intensity, but the pre...
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#1Eva Otoupalova (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 2
#2Samuel R. Smith (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 3
Last. Victor J. Thannickal (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 66
view all 4 authors...
Oxidative stress has been linked to various disease states as well as physiological aging. The lungs are uniquely exposed to a highly oxidizing environment and have evolved several mechanisms to attenuate oxidative stress. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive age-related disorder that leads to architectural remodeling, impaired gas exchange, respiratory failure, and death. In this article, we discuss cellular sources of oxidant production, and antioxidant defenses, both enzymatic...
1 CitationsSource
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Endocrinology
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