Methods in Enzymology
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#1Stephen R. Shannon (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)H-Index: 2
#2Jianshi Yu (UMB: University of Maryland, Baltimore)H-Index: 7
Last. Paul A. Trainor (Stowers Institute for Medical Research)H-Index: 42
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Abstract Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential nutrient for embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Signaling by vitamin A is carried out by its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), following a two-step conversion. RA is a small, lipophilic molecule that can diffuse from its site of synthesis to neighboring RA-responsive cells where it binds retinoic acid receptors within RA response elements of target genes. It is critical that both vitamin A and RA are maintained within a tight physiologi...
#1Azita Kouchmeshky (Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)
#2Timothy Goodman (Keele University)H-Index: 1
Last. Peter McCaffery (Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)H-Index: 24
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Abstract The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway is crucial for the control of embryonic development and also regulates function of several organ systems in the adult, including the central nervous system. The retinoic acid receptors (RARs) that mediate the majority of the functions of RA can promote proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell survival. Dysregulation of this signaling pathway has been considered in the pathophysiology of various diseases including neurodegenerative d...
#1Azita Kouchmeshky (Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)
#2Peter McCaffery (Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)H-Index: 24
Abstract Retinoic acid (RA) is a lipid signaling molecule that has a crucial role in growth and survival of neurons as well as regulation of neuronal plasticity in the central nervous system. Complete understanding of the distribution of RA is necessary to identify foci of RA signaling. However, RA itself is very difficult to detect by immunohistochemistry as there are few effective antibodies to this lipid and it can be difficult to fix in place in tissue. A set of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases ...
#1Brianna Costabile (Columbia University)
#2Youn Kyung Kim (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 9
Last. Filippo Mancia (Columbia University)H-Index: 17
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Abstract STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid 6) is a 75 kDa polytopic transmembrane protein that facilitates cellular retinol uptake from retinol-binding protein (RBP). Structural characterization of STRA6 from Danio rerio purified in detergent and reconstituted in amphipol A8-35 was achieved by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). This provided the first high-resolution snapshot of this protein, showing a novel topology of a tightly assembled homodimer, and an unexpected physiolog...
Retinoic acid receptors were discovered during early studies of the actions and mechanisms of essential vitamins. Vitamin A is metabolized in the body to retinoic acid (RA) which is a key compound in the control of many developmental processes in chordates. These functions are mediated by a subfamily of nuclear receptors, divided into two classes, the retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and the retinoid X receptors (RXR). Each class is encoded by three closely related genes that are located on differe...
#1Reza ZolfaghariH-Index: 21
#2Floyd J. MattieH-Index: 3
Last. A. Catharine RossH-Index: 35
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We have used a shortened construct form of the CYP26A1 gene promoter, in a promoter-less vector with either luciferase (known as E4) or a red fluorescent protein, RFP (known as E4.2) as the reporter gene and examined their responses to retinoids in transfected HepG2 and HEK293T cells. The promoter responded linearly to a wide concentration range of at-RA in cells cotransfected with retinoic acid receptors (RAR). The promoter also responded quantitatively to retinol and various other retinoids. A...
#1Matteo Bozzo (UniGe: University of Genoa)H-Index: 1
#2Simona Candiani (UniGe: University of Genoa)H-Index: 18
Last. Michael Schubert (University of Paris)H-Index: 33
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Abstract Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A-derived signaling molecule acting during development and in the adult. This chapter provides protocols to characterize the role of RA signaling during development of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus. As sister group to all other chordates and characterized by the most vertebrate-like RA signaling system of all invertebrates, amphioxus is an important model for studying the evolution of RA signaling. Focusing on the development of GABAergic neurons in...
#1Mary Ann Asson-Batres (Tennessee State University)H-Index: 5
#2Christopher W. Norwood (Tennessee State University)
Abstract Embryonic development is controlled by retinoids, and one approach that has been used to investigate the mechanisms for retinoid actions in developmental processes has been to study the effects of adding retinoids to cultures of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC). To date, most in vitro retinoid research has been directed at deciphering the actions of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). atRA is a derivative of all-trans retinol (a.k.a. vitamin A, VA), which mammals can generate via an e...
#1Joseph L. Napoli (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 33
#2Hong Sik Yoo (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 2
Abstract Cellular retinoid-binding proteins (BP) chaperone retinol through esterification, conversion of retinol into retinal, reduction of retinal, conversion of retinal into all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), and ATRA to catabolism. They also deliver ATRA to nuclear receptors and mediate non-genomic ATRA actions. These retinoid-specific binding-proteins include: cellular retinol binding-protein, type 1 (Crbp1), cellular retinol binding-protein type 2 (Crbp2), cellular retinol binding-protein type...
#1Sheila SpadaH-Index: 1
#2Nils-Petter Rudqvist (Cornell University)H-Index: 4
Last. Erik WennerbergH-Index: 16
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Abstract Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles released by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells with a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication in both physiological and pathological conditions. Exosomes contain and transfer active biomolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids to target recipient cells. In the last decade, many methodologies have been developed for isolating specific exosomal components. In this chapter, we will detail methods to isolate exosomal DNA, considering ...
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