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Progress in Brain Research
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#1Gonzalez-Rodriguez P (NU: Northwestern University)
#2Zampese E (NU: Northwestern University)
Last. D. James Surmeier (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 73
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, disabling millions worldwide. Despite the imperative PD poses, at present, there is no cure or means of slowing progression. This gap is attributable to our incomplete understanding of the factors driving pathogenesis. Research over the past several decades suggests that both cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous processes contribute to the neuronal dysfunction underlying PD symptoms. The thesis of this review is tha...
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Abstract Animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) are essential to investigate pathogenic pathways at the whole-organism level. Moreover, they are necessary for a preclinical investigation of potential new therapies. Different pathological features of PD can be induced in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate species using toxins, drugs, or genetic perturbations. Each model has a particular utility and range of applicability. Invertebrate PD models are particularly useful for high throughput...
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#1Katarzyna KuterH-Index: 1
#1Katarzyna Kuter (PAN: Polish Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 13
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Abstract Originally believed to primarily affect neurons, Parkinson's disease (PD) has recently been recognized to also affect the functions and integrity of microglia and astroglia, two cell categories of fundamental importance to brain tissue homeostasis, defense, and repair. Both a loss of glial supportive-defensive functions and a toxic gain of glial functions are implicated in the neurodegenerative process. Moreover, the chronic treatment with L-DOPA may cause maladaptive glial plasticity f...
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#1Per Petersson (Umeå University)H-Index: 18
#2Andrea A. Kühn (Charité)H-Index: 45
Last. Romulo Fuentes (University of Chile)H-Index: 9
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Abstract Oscillations are a naturally occurring phenomenon in highly interconnected dynamical systems. However, it is thought that excessive synchronized oscillations in brain circuits can be detrimental for many brain functions by disrupting neuronal information processing. Because synchronized basal ganglia oscillations are a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), it has been suggested that aberrant rhythmic activity associated with symptoms of the disease could be used as a physiological bioma...
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#1Lindsey A Cunningham (Van Andel Institute)
#2Darren J. Moore (Van Andel Institute)H-Index: 47
Abstract The identification of Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated genes has created a powerful platform to begin to understand and nominate pathophysiological disease mechanisms. Herein, we discuss the genetic and experimental evidence supporting endolysosomal dysfunction as a major pathway implicated in PD. Well-studied familial PD-linked gene products, including LRRK2, VPS35, and α-synuclein, demonstrate how disruption of different aspects of endolysosomal sorting pathways by disease-causing ...
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#1Ali Keshavarzian (Rush University Medical Center)H-Index: 65
#2Phillip Engen (Rush University Medical Center)H-Index: 19
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Abstract In recent years, large-scale metagenomics projects such as the Human Microbiome Project placed the gut microbiota under the spotlight of research on its role in health and in the pathogenesis several diseases, as it can be a target for novel therapeutical approaches. The emerging concept of a microbiota modulation of the gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders has been explored in several studies in animal models, as well as in human subjects. Particularly, res...
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#1Sara MeoniH-Index: 2
Last. Elena MoroH-Index: 40
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#1Rebekah G. Langston (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 3
#2Mark R. Cookson (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 77
Abstract Since the discovery of protein aggregates in the brains of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) in the early 20th century, the scientific community has been interested in the role of dysfunctional protein metabolism in PD etiology. Recent advances in the field have implicated defective protein handling underlying PD through genetic, in vitro, and in vivo studies incorporating many disease models alongside neuropathological evidence. Here, we discuss the existing body of research fo...
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#1Eva Schaeffer (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 3
#1Eva Schaeffer (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 2
Last. Daniela Berg (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 12
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Abstract Recent years have brought a rapid growth in knowledge of the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is now clear that the clinical phase of PD is preceded by a phase of progressing neurodegeneration lasting many years. This involves not only central nervous system structures outside the substantia nigra and neurotransmitter systems other than the dopaminergic system, but also the peripheral nervous systems. Different ways of alpha-synuclein spreading are presumed, corresponding...
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Abstract Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21), results in a spectrum of phenotypes including learning and memory deficits, motor dysfunction and social constrains. The regions on Hsa21 are conserved with their synteny on mouse chromosome 10, 16 and 17. To date, a wide range of mouse models has been developed to determine genotype-phenotype relationships and identity of the causative dosage-sensitive genes. However, the comparison of behavioral results is not obvious due...
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