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Vitamins and Hormones Series
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#1Peter J. Fuller (Hudson Institute of Medical Research)H-Index: 43
#2Jun Yang (Hudson Institute of Medical Research)H-Index: 9
Last.Morag J. Young (Hudson Institute of Medical Research)H-Index: 31
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Abstract The cellular response to aldosterone is mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). This response is best characterized in the renal epithelia with control of sodium and water homeostasis. However, the MR binds more than one ligand and has wide tissue distribution with multiple roles in cardiovascular function, immune cell signaling, neuronal fate and adipocyte differentiation. This chapter will provide a review of MR structure and function, and an analysis of the critical interact...
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Abstract The development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance of the most common human cancers are driven by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)—signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-Ars) coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gs. Receptors coupled to the inhibitory G-protein Gi inhibit this signaling cascade by blocking the activation of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase that catalyzes the formation of cAMP and function as the physiological inhibitors of this signaling cascade....
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#1Ana Rocha (Biotechnology Institute)
#2Alejandra Godino-Gimeno (Biotechnology Institute)
Last.José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter (Biotechnology Institute)
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Abstract Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) belongs to the opioid/orphanin gene family whose peptide precursors include either opioid (YGGF) or the orphanin/nociceptin core sequences (FGGF). In addition to POMC the family includes the proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and nociceptin/proorphanin (PNOC) precursors. The opioid core sequence in POMC is incorporated by the β-endorphin that occupies the C-terminal region but this propeptide also exhibits at least two “alien” melanocortin core sequenc...
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#1Yohei Kanamori (Kyoto University)H-Index: 8
#2Masaru Murakami (LMB: Laboratory of Molecular Biology)H-Index: 21
Last.Masayuki Funaba (Kyoto University)H-Index: 22
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Abstract Hepcidin expression is determined through transcriptional regulation by systemic iron status. However, acute or chronic inflammation also increases the expression of hepcidin, which is associated with the dysregulation of iron metabolism in pathological conditions. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been suggested to be a principal molecule to confer inflammation-related hepcidin transcription, which is mediated via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-binding site on the hepcidi...
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#1Hervé Lefebvre (French Institute of Health and Medical Research)H-Index: 37
#2Céline Duparc (French Institute of Health and Medical Research)H-Index: 13
Last.Estelle Louiset (French Institute of Health and Medical Research)H-Index: 13
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Abstract Aldosterone secretion by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex is controlled by circulating factors including the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and potassium. Mineralocorticoid production is also regulated through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by a wide variety of bioactive signals released in the vicinity of adrenocortical cells by chromaffin cells, nerve endings, cells of the immune system, endothelial cells and adipocytes. These regulatory factors include conventional neurot...
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#1Leda Kovatsi (A.U.Th.: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)H-Index: 16
#2Kakia NikolaouH-Index: 3
Abstract The neuropeptide Oxytocin (ΟΤ) is involved as a neurohormone, a neurotransmitter, or a neuromodulator in an extensive range of central and peripheral effects, complex emotional and social human behaviors, memory and learning processes. It is implicated in homeostatic, neuroadaptive processes associated with stress responses and substance use via interactions with the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the dopamine mesolimbic reward stress system. This chapter reviews the prec...
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Abstract Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selecti...
5 CitationsSource
Abstract The endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS) are intimately linked. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the regulation of development and differentiation of neurons and neuroglia and hence for development and function of the CNS. T3 (3,3′,5-triiodothyronine), an active form of TH, is important not only for neuronal development but also for differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and for microglial develop...
5 CitationsSource
Abstract Thyroid hormones (TH) exhibit pleiotropic regulatory effects on growth, development, and metabolism, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the developing testis is an important target for them. Testicular development is highly dependent on TH status. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect testis size and the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli, Leydig, and germ cells, with consequences for steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. These observations suggest t...
3 CitationsSource
#1Sean P. Prall (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 7
#2Michael P. Muehlenbein (Baylor University)H-Index: 22
Abstract DHEA and DHEA-S have numerous associations with multiple aspects of immune function and are often characterized as beneficial and supportive of immunocompetence. However, closer inspection of these studies reveals confusion regarding the immunological components modified, the mechanisms of action, and degree of impact, and even whether these hormones even have direct action or are mediated by metabolites and interactions with other hormones and hormone receptors. Additionally, much of t...
4 CitationsSource
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