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Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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Background Data on the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on pregnancy outcomes are inconclusive. Objective To study the relation between maternal cumulative exposure to ELF-EMF during pregnancy and the risk of prematurity or small for gestational age (SGA) in a pooled analysis of two French birth cohorts. Methods Elfe and Epipage2 are both population-based birth cohorts initiated in 2011 and included 18 329 and 8400 births, respectively. Health data and househol...
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Objectives Occupational exposures to metal fumes have been associated with increased pneumonia risk, but the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has not been characterised previously. Methods We studied 4438 cases aged 20–65 from a Swedish registry of invasive infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The case index date was the date the infection was diagnosed. Six controls for each case, matched for gender, age and region of residency, were selected from the Swedish population regi...
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Objectives Increased risk has been suggested for autoimmune rheumatic diseases following solvent exposure. The evidence for specific solvents is limited, and little is known about exposure–response relations. Styrene is an aromatic, organic solvent and the objective of this study was to analyse the association between occupational styrene exposure and autoimmune rheumatic diseases in men and women. Methods We followed 72 212 styrene-exposed workers of the Danish reinforced plastics industry from...
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Objectives Long commuting times are linked to poor health outcomes, but the evidence is mainly cross-sectional. We examined longitudinal within-individual associations between commuting time and behaviour-related health. Methods Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. We selected workers who responded to a minimum of two surveys conducted every other year between 2008 and 2018. We included all study waves with self-reported commuting time (ie, the exposure, 1...
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Objectives We aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for the duration of sickness absence (SA) spells due to back pain (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision: M54), using Swedish nationwide register microdata. Methods Information on all new SA spells >14 days from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2012 and on possible predictors were obtained. The duration of SA was predicted by using piecewise constant hazard models. Nine predictors wer...
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Objectives Transportation noise has been associated with markers of obesity. We aimed to investigate whether road traffic and railway noise were associated with weight gain during and after pregnancy. Methods Among the women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, 74 065 reported on weight before and during the pregnancy (gestational week 30) and 52 661 reported on weight before and 18 months after pregnancy. Residential address history from conception to 18 months after pregnancy was...
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Objective Estimates of pesticide exposure among applicators from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce, and exposure assessment methods are sometimes costly or logistically unfeasible. We examined the variability in weeklong pesticide exposure among applicators in Costa Rica and its predictors. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 221 pesticide applicators from organic, sustainable and conventional farms in 2016. We administered structured questionnaires to assess pe...
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Objectives Previous analyses of cataract in radiation-exposed populations have assessed relative risk; radiogenic excess additive risk (EAR), arguably of more public health importance, has not been estimated. Previous analysis of a large prospective cohort of US radiologic technologists (USRT) quantified excess relative risk of cataract in relation to occupational radiation dose. We aim to assess EARs of cataract. Methods We estimated EARs of cataract/cataract surgery in the USRT cohort using ge...
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Objectives To determine the impact of legislative changes to the New South Wales (NSW) workers’ compensation scheme on injured workers access to benefits, insurer claim processing and work disability duration. Methods Population-based interrupted time series study of workers’ compensation claims made in NSW 2 years before and after legislative amendment in June 2012. Outcomes included incidence of accepted claims per 100 000 workers, the median and 75th percentile insurer decision time in days, ...
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