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Seminars in Cancer Biology
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9.66
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1824
Papers 1844
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Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel class of anti-cancer drugs that exhibit significant therapeutic effects even in patients with advanced stage cancer. However, the efficacy of ICIs is limited due to resistance. Therefore, appropriate biomarkers to select patients who are likely to respond to these drugs as well as combination therapy to overcome the resistance are urgently necessary. Cancer is caused by various genetic alterations that lead to abnormalities in oncogenic sign...
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Abstract Single agent checkpoint inhibitor therapy has not been effective for most gastrointestinal solid tumors, but combination therapy with drugs targeting additional immunosuppressive pathways is being attempted. One such pathway, the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 chemokine axis, has attracted attention due to its effects on tumor cell survival and metastasis as well as immune cell migration. CXCL12 is a small protein that functions in normal hematopoietic stem cell homing in addition to repair of dama...
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Abstract Cancer undergoes “immune editing” to evade destruction by cells of the host immune system including natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Current adoptive cellular immune therapies include CAR T cells and dendritic cell vaccines, strategies that have yet to show success for a wide range of tumors. Cancer resistance to immune therapy is driven by extrinsic factors and tumor cell intrinsic factors that contribute to immune evasion. These extrinsic factors include i...
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Abstract Cancer cells encounter numerous stresses that pose a threat to their survival. Tumor microenviroment stresses that perturb protein homeostasis can produce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can be counterbalanced by triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is considered the canonical ER stress response. The UPR is characterized by three major proteins that lead to specific changes in transcriptional and translational programs in stressed cells. Activation of the UPR ca...
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Abstract Undifferentiated sarcoma of soft tissue (USTS) are aggressive sarcomas that remain a diagnosis of exclusion and show extreme genomic complexity. Many advances in diagnostic criteria have resulted in several revisions in the definition of this rare cancer type. Recent sequencing efforts have illuminated the nature of the genome complexity and have revealed extensive copy number heterogeneity and multiple evolutionary patterns of development. This review places these recent advances into ...
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Abstract Amongst the various types of cancer, breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease and known as the leading cause of death among women globally. The extensive interdisciplinary investigation in nanotechnology and cancer biomedical research has been evolved over the years for its effective treatment. However, the advent of chemotherapeutic resistance in breast cancer is one of the major confront researchers are facing in achieving successful chemotherapy. Research in the area of cancer...
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Abstract Traditional cancer treatment approaches have focused on surgery, radiation therapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, with rare exceptions, metastatic cancers were considered to be incurable by traditional therapy. Over the past 20 years a fourth modality – immunotherapy – has emerged as a potentially curative approach for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. However, in many patients cancer “finds a way” to evade the anti-tumor effects of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy resistance...
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Abstract Comprised of a complex network of numerous intertwining pathways, the Ca2+ signalling nexus is an essential mediator of many normal cellular activities. Like many other such functions, the normal physiological activity of Ca2+ signalling is frequently co-opted and reshaped in cases of breast cancer, creating a potent oncogenic drive within the affected cell population. Such modifications can occur within pathways mediating either Ca2+ import (e.g. TRP channels, ORAI-STIM1) or Ca2+ expor...
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Abstract The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) represent two vital intracellular signaling pathways, which are associated with various aspects of cellular functions. These functions play vital roles in quiescence, survival, and growth in normal physiological circumstances as well as in various pathological disorders, including cancer. These two pathways are so intimately connected to each other that in some instances these are considered as one...
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Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells have demonstrated remarkable success in the treatment of B cell malignancies. FDA approval of these therapies represents a watershed moment in the development of therapies for cancer. Despite the successes of the last decade, many patients will unfortunately not experience durable responses to CAR therapy. Emerging research has shed light on the biology responsible for these failures, and further highlighted the hurdles to broader succe...
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Cancer
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