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Field Crops Research
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Abstract The goal of most fertilizer decision support tools is to help maize farmers estimate the most profitable nitrogen (N) rate for a given fertilizer N/grain price ratio, known as the economically optimum N rate (EONR). While maximizing profitability, to our knowledge the environmental performance of the EONR has not been fully assessed using a process-based model that can jointly predict yield, N uptake, and multiple N loss pathways (leaching, nitrous oxide emissions, volatilization). The ...
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Abstract Water deficit has been signaled as an important determinant of grain yield (GY) gaps between potential and actual GYs. Breeding for improved water as well as solar radiation productivities is a sustainable means to reduce this gap. The aim of this study was to evaluate breeding effects on GY and its physiological determinants, including water (WUE) and radiation (RUE) use efficiencies, of temperate maize hybrids grown under a wide range of environmental conditions in Argentina. We hypot...
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Abstract Methodical nitrogen–water (N–W) distribution management (MNWD) is a comprehensive N–W management technique designed to meet the requirements of rice production in China and specifically, the stabilization of grain yield and reduction of input resources. In this study, four split plot field experiments were conducted in two locations to examine the impact of MNWD on N use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE). We used high N efficiency rice varieties, Dexiang 4103 and Fyou 498,...
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Abstract Strip intercropping increases land use efficiency but the effect on water use efficiency is less well-known. Here we develop a modelling method to simulate the growth of an intercrop taking into account the acquisition of light and water by the component species in order to calculate the efficacy of light and water acquisition in an intercropping system as compared to sole crops. The model is parameterized, calibrated and validated using data on wheat-maize intercropping in Gansu provin...
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Abstract Manipulating leaf inclination angle is a feasible approach to improve canopy photosynthesis and dry matter production in rice (Oryza sativa) via enhancing light penetration into the canopy. The importance of the semi-dwarf 1 (sd1) gene, a loss-of-function allele of SD1 encoding GA-20 oxidase-2 in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis, in rice yield through improving lodging resistance is well known. However, little is known about the effects of sd1 as well as GA on leaf inclination angle. A nea...
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Abstract The development and deployment of high-yielding stress tolerant maize hybrids are important components of the efforts to increase maize productivity in eastern Africa. This study was conducted to: i) evaluate selected, stress-tolerant maize hybrids under farmers’ conditions; ii) identify farmers’ selection criteria in selecting maize hybrids; and iii) have farmers evaluate the new varieties according to those criteria. Two sets of trials, one with 12 early-to-intermediate maturing and t...
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Abstract Chicory has been promoted as an alternative forage crop for livestock farming. It can produce large biomass yields and is highly palatable to animals. However, managing forage chicory in pastoral farms can be challenging because of its growth pattern and low persistence. There is thus a need for modelling tools that can help to understand and manage forage chicory within the farm system. In this work we review the main botanical characteristics of the chicory plant and describe a model ...
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Abstract Frequent waterlogging events have severely constrained wheat production in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China (YR). Understanding the effects of waterlogging on agronomic traits and grain yield in historic wheat cultivars can help establish strategies for stable- and high-yield breeding programs. We conducted a two-year field experiment using 10 winter wheat cultivars that were released and widely planted in YR from 1967 to 2010. Ten days of waterlogging were impos...
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Abstract Rice and wheat are globally dominant staple cereals and supply a substantial proportion of caloric intake in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Straw byproducts from these cereals form the basal diet for ruminant livestock across much of the developing world. Work with other cereals demonstrates the value placed on cereal straws and stovers by smallholder farmers indicated by their willingness to pay a quality premium. Despite this, breeding efforts have tended to disregard straw ...
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Abstract The ability of a plant to maintain low Na concentration is a critical component for its tolerance to salt affected soil stresses. Leaf Na concentration was investigated to understand its usefulness in screening of cotton for tolerance to soil sodicity and to assess its effect on agronomic performance. A set of family lines and high yield lines with low and high leaf Na concentration were tested in field experiments with sodic soils. The youngest fully expanded leaves at early flowering ...
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