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American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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#1Curswan A. Andrews (University of Fort Hare)H-Index: 1
#2Judith C. Masters (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 3
Last. Sébastien Couette (University of Burgundy)
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OBJECTIVES Phylogenies consistently group the folivorous Lepilemur species with the small-bodied insectivorous-frugivorous cheirogaleids. Juvenile lepilemurs and adult cheirogaleids share allometries in most aspects of skull morphology, except the palate. We investigated potential influences on palate shape in these taxa and several outgroups using geometric morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our sample included representatives of four extant strepsirrhine families, Cheirogaleidae (including L...
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#1Karen R. Swan (Natural History Museum)
#2Rachel Ives (Natural History Museum)H-Index: 14
Last. Louise T. Humphrey (Natural History Museum)H-Index: 24
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OBJECTIVES The femur is a major weight-bearing bone that is variably loaded throughout growth as children transition through locomotory states prior to the attainment of a mature bipedal gait. Here, we document ontogenetic trends in femoral cross-sectional geometry (CSG) and explore how changes in loading regime may impact the structural arrangement of cortical bone along the length of the developing diaphysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Micro-CT scans of 110 immature femora were generated from a doc...
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#1Anna Maria Kubicka (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
#2Anna Myszka (Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw)
OBJECTIVES Reconstruction of the activity of past human populations can be carried out using various skeletal markers; however, the relationship between these methods is not fully understood. Therefore, the main aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between entheseal changes, cross-sectional properties, and variability in the shape of the upper limb. MATERIALS AND METHODS The analyzed material consisted of CT images of 71 right scapulae, humeri, and ulnae belonging to the same indiv...
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#1Lu Yao (AMNH: American Museum of Natural History)
#2Kelsey Witt (Brown University)
Last. Ripan S. Malhi (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 32
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OBJECTIVES Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are widely distributed throughout the mainland and islands of Southeast Asia, making them a useful model for understanding the complex biogeographical history resulting from drastic changes in sea levels throughout the Pleistocene. Past studies based on mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of long-tailed macaque museum specimens have traced their colonization patterns throughout the archipelago, but mitogenomes trace only the maternal history....
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#2Diego López-Onaindia (Autonomous University of Barcelona)H-Index: 2
Last. Aida Gómez-Robles (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 20
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OBJECTIVES: We provide the description and comparative analysis of all the human fossil remains found at Axlor during the excavations carried out by J. M. de Barandiaran from 1967 to 1974: a cranial vault fragment and seven teeth, five of which likely belonged to the same individual, although two are currently lost. Our goal is to describe in detail all these human remains and discuss both their taxonomic attribution and their stratigraphic context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe external an...
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#1Marco Milella (University of Bern)
#2Maria Giovanna Belcastro (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 13
Last. Efthymia Nikita (The Cyprus Institute)H-Index: 6
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OBJECTIVES The present study tests the effectiveness of entheseal robusticity (ER) as a potential predictor of adult age-at-death by applying multiple regression models to a large contemporary identified skeletal sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS ER was recorded for 23 bilateral postcranial entheses on 481 adult individuals (271 females and 210 males) from the Frassetto identified skeletal collection of Sassari (Italy), following the method of Mariotti et al. 2007. ER scores were used as predictors ...
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#1Brittany Kenyon-Flatt (UB: University at Buffalo)
#2Mark A Conaway (UB: University at Buffalo)H-Index: 1
Last. Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel (UB: University at Buffalo)H-Index: 24
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OBJECTIVES The cranium is generally considered more reliable than the postcranium for assessing primate taxonomy, although recent research suggests that pelvic shape may be equally reliable. However, little research has focused on intrageneric taxonomic discrimination. Here, we test the relative taxonomic efficacy of the cranium and os coxa for differentiating two macaque species, with and without considering sexual dimorphism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Geometric morphometric analyses were performed...
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#1Nicole S. Torosin (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 1
#2Timothy H. Webster (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 8
Last. Leslie A. Knapp (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 33
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BACKGROUND In 2007-2009, a major yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in Northern Argentina decimated the local howler monkey (Alouatta) population. AIMS To evaluate whether the surviving howler monkeys possess advantageous genetic variants inherited from monkeys alive prior to the YFV outbreak, we explored the relationship between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 gene variation and YFV susceptibility. METHODS We used samples from Alouatta individuals in Misiones, Argentina alive before the YFV ...
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#1Clare McFadden (ANU: Australian National University)H-Index: 3
#2Marc F. Oxenham (ANU: Australian National University)
OBJECTIVES The Osteological Paradox posits that skeletal lesions may differentially be interpreted as representing resilience or frailty. However, specific consideration of the etiologies and demographic distributions of individual skeletal indicators can inform the criteria on which to differentiate stress, frailty, and resilience. Adopting a life history approach and adaptive plasticity model, this study proposes a framework for the analysis and interpretation of a commonly reported skeletal l...
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#1Richard J. Smith (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 36
Statistically nonsignificant (p > .05) results from a null hypothesis significance test (NHST) are often mistakenly interpreted as evidence that the null hypothesis is true-that there is "no effect" or "no difference." However, many of these results occur because the study had low statistical power to detect an effect. Power below 50% is common, in which case a result of no statistical significance is more likely to be incorrect than correct. The inference of "no effect" is not valid even if pow...
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