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Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
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2.43
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343
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#1Chihiro Sato (Nagoya University)H-Index: 34
#2Ken Kitajima (Nagoya University)H-Index: 43
Abstract Sialic acid (Sia) is involved in many biological activities and commonly occurs as a monosialyl residue at the nonreducing terminal end of glycoconjugates. The loss of activity of UDP-GlcNAc2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase, which is a key enzyme in Sia biosynthesis, is lethal to the embryo, which clearly indicates the importance of Sia in embryogenesis. Occasionally, oligo/polymeric Sia structures such as disialic acid (diSia), oligosialic acid (oligoSia), and polysialic acid (polySia) occur i...
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#1Ronald Lee Schnaar (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 34
Abstract Gangliosides comprise a varied family of glycosphingolipid structures bearing one or more sialic acid residues. They are found in all mammalian tissues but are most abundant in the brain, where they represent the quantitatively major class of sialoglycans. As prominent molecular determinants on cell surfaces, they function as molecular-recognition partners for diverse glycan-binding proteins ranging from bacterial toxins to endogenous cell–cell adhesion molecules. Gangliosides also regu...
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#1Roland Schauer (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 58
#2Johannis P. Kamerling (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 60
Abstract Sialic acids are cytoprotectors, mainly localized on the surface of cell membranes with multiple and outstanding cell biological functions. The history of their structural analysis, occurrence, and functions is fascinating and described in this review. Reports from different researchers on apparently similar substances from a variety of biological materials led to the identification of a 9-carbon monosaccharide, which in 1957 was designated “sialic acid.” The most frequently occurring m...
7 CitationsSource
Abstract The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a key component of the microenvironment surrounding cells. In healthy tissues, HA molecules have extremely high molecular mass and consequently large hydrodynamic volumes. Tethered to the cell surface by clustered receptor proteins, HA molecules crowd each other, as well as other macromolecular species. This leads to severe nonideality in physical properties of the biomatrix, because steric exclusion leads to an increase in effective concentratio...
17 CitationsSource
#1Seyed I. Sadraei (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 1
#2Michael R. Reynolds (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 1
Last.John F. Trant (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 9
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Abstract Carcinomas express unique carbohydrates, known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), on their surface. These are potential targets for anticancer vaccines; however, to date, no such vaccine has reached the clinic. One factor that may complicate the success of this effort is the lability of the glycosidic bond. Acetal-free carbohydrates are analogues that lack the glycosidic linkage by replacing either the endo or exo oxygen with a methylene. This chapter summarizes the semi...
1 CitationsSource
Abstract 2-Amino-2-deoxy- d -glucose (d -glucosamine) is among the most abundant monosaccharides found in natural products. This constituent, recognized for its ubiquity, is presented in most instances as its N -acetyl derivative 2-acetamido-2-deoxy- d -glucopyranose ( N -acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc, NAG). It occurs as the β-linked pyranosyl group in polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, and sometimes as the monosaccharide itself, either in its native state or as a glycoconjugate. The compound's a...
3 CitationsSource
#1Gerrit J. Gerwig (UG: University of Groningen)H-Index: 32
#2Evelien M. te Poele (UG: University of Groningen)H-Index: 7
Last.Johannis P. Kamerling (UG: University of Groningen)H-Index: 60
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Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeten...
10 CitationsSource
#1Chao Li (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 1
#2Lai-Xi Wang (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 1
Abstract Recent advances in glycobiology have implicated essential roles of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in many important biological recognition processes, including intracellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cancer progression, host–pathogen interactions, and immune responses. A detailed understanding of the biological functions, as well as the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, often requires structurally well-defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugate...
4 CitationsSource
#1Arnold E. Stütz (Graz University of Technology)H-Index: 24
#2Tanja M. Wrodnigg (Graz University of Technology)H-Index: 20
Abstract Lysosomal storage diseases are hereditary disorders caused by mutations on genes encoding for one of the more than fifty lysosomal enzymes involved in the highly ordered degradation cascades of glycans, glycoconjugates, and other complex biomolecules in the lysosome. Several of these metabolic disorders are associated with the absence or the lack of activity of carbohydrate-processing enzymes in this cell compartment. In a recently introduced therapy concept, for susceptible mutants, sm...
1 CitationsSource
#1Eric R. Greene (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 4
#2Michael E. Himmel (NREL: National Renewable Energy Laboratory)H-Index: 6
Last.Zhongping Tan (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 20
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Cellulose in plant cell walls is the largest reservoir of renewable carbon on Earth. The saccharification of cellulose from plant biomass into soluble sugars can be achieved using fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, and further converted into fuels and chemicals. Most fungal cellulases are both N- and O-glycosylated in their native form, yet the consequences of glycosylation on activity and structure are not fully understood. Studying protein glycosylation is challenging as gl...
17 CitationsSource
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