Purpose of the Review Nowadays, important advances have occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), which is a rare immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) characterized by vascular damage, immune imbalance, and fibrosis. Its etiology remains unknown; nevertheless, both environmental and genetic factors play a major role in the disease. This review will focus on the main advances made in the field of genetics of SSc.
Purpose of the Review Osteoarthritis is widely regarded as a spectrum of conditions that affect all joint tissues, typified by a common entity: cartilage loss. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in chondroprotection and discuss new strategies to prevent cartilage loss in osteoarthritis.
Purpose of Review Esophageal dysfunction is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Limited treatment options are available for scleroderma esophageal disease. Here, we discuss recent updates on the diagnosis, treatment, and characterization that have been made in patients with scleroderma esophageal disease.
Purpose of Review Osteoarthritis (OA) is a subset of joint disorders resulting in degeneration of synovial joints. This leads to pain, disability and loss of independence. Knee and hip OA are extremely prevalent, and their occurrence increases with ageing. Similarly, loss of muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, occurs during ageing.
Purpose of Review Articular chondrocytes are exclusively responsible for the turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of hyaline cartilage. However, chondrocytes are phenotypically unstable and, if they de-differentiate into hypertrophic or fibroblastic forms, will produce a defective and weak matrix. Chondrocyte volume and morphology exert a strong influence over phenotype and a full appreciation of the factors controlling chondrocyte phenotype stability is central to understanding (a) the me...
Purpose of Review Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a granulomatous inflammatory disorder that affects large vessels, especially aorta and its proximal branches. Its diagnosis can be extremely challenging due to the non-specificity of the systemic inflammatory manifestations during the early phase of the disease and usually follows an insidious clinical course until the emergence of vascular ischemic complications.
Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to educate the reader about the evolving classification of axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA) and describe recent treatment data from clinical trials of medications with mechanisms of action other than TNF inhibition. The review will also address emerging treatment strategies for AxSpA.