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Anthony D. Hawkins
King's College, Aberdeen
EcologyAcousticsSound exposureFisheryBiology
61Publications
21H-index
1,702Citations
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Publications 62
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#1Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
#2Craig R. JohnsonH-Index: 46
Last. Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
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Underwater sounds from human sources can have detrimental effects upon aquatic animals, including fishes. Thus, it is important to establish sound exposure criteria for fishes, setting out those levels of sound from different sources that have detrimental effects upon them, in order to support current and future protective regulations. This paper considers the gaps in information that must be resolved in order to establish reasonable sound exposure criteria for fishes. The vulnerability of fishe...
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The codfish family includes more than 500 species that vary greatly in their abundance in areas like the North Sea and are widely fished. Gadoids (codfish) gather at particular locations to spawn, where they exhibit complex reproductive behavior with visual and acoustic displays. Calls have been described from seven species, including the Atlantic cod and haddock. They vocalize by means of a specialized apparatus, consisting of rapidly contracting striated muscles (the drumming muscles) attached...
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#1Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
#2Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
Last. Joseph A. Sisneros (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 25
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2 CitationsSource
#1Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
#2Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
2 CitationsSource
#1Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
#2Colin Chapman (St And: University of St Andrews)
Last. Olav Sand (University of Oslo)H-Index: 31
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#1Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
#2Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
Directional hearing may enable fishes to seek out prey, avoid predators, find mates, and detect important spatial cues. Early sound localization experiments gave negative results, and it was thought unlikely that fishes utilized the same direction-finding mechanisms as terrestrial vertebrates. However, fishes swim towards underwater sound sources, and some can discriminate between sounds from different directions and distances. The otolith organs of the inner ear detect the particle motion compo...
5 CitationsSource
#1Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
#2Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
Awareness of fish sound production dates back to ancient times, and concern about effects of man-made sounds on fishes can be traced back at least to the mid 17th century. By the end of the 19th century, the morphology of the fish ear had been well described, but experimental studies of the hearing characteristics did not begin until the early 1900s, when Parker demonstrated that fish can detect sounds. Subsequent work by von Frisch and his students, including Dijkgraaf, determined the range of ...
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#1Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
#2Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
This paper considers the importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates and the steps that need to be taken to improve knowledge of its effects. It is aimed at scientists investigating the impacts of sounds on fishes and invertebrates but it is also relevant to regulators, those preparing environmental impact assessments, and to industries creating underwater sounds. The overall aim of this paper is to ensure that proper attention is paid to particle motion as a stimulus when evaluati...
9 CitationsSource
#1Anthony D. HawkinsH-Index: 21
#2Arthur N. Popper (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 66
Sound provides animals with a means of rapid, directional, and long-distance communication. It also provides animals with a “gestalt” view of their environment by giving an acoustic image of the world that often extends far beyond what is available from other senses. Thus, sound is highly relevant for fishes, and any interference with the ability to detect sound has potential consequences for the fitness and survival of individuals, populations, and species. There is a growing body of evidence t...
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Anthropogenic underwater sounds can impact aquatic life. Adherence to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) requires a risk assessment of the potential effects from underwater noise. Procedures for evaluating the risk to marine mammals (MMPA) are increasingly sophisticated, and quantitative science-based criteria for mammals were published in 2007 by Southall et al. The need for equivalent...
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