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Julia A. Leonard
McGovern Institute for Brain Research
27Publications
9H-index
259Citations
Publications 27
Newest
#1Julia A. Leonard (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 9
#2Andrea Garcia (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Last.Laura Schulz (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 26
view all 3 authors...
#1Julia A. Leonard (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)
#2Rachel R. Romeo (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
Last.Allyson P. Mackey (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 9
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Although lower socioeconomic status (SES) is generally negatively associated with performance on cognitive assessments, some children from lower-SES backgrounds perform as well as their peers from higher-SES backgrounds. Yet little research has examined whether the neural correlates of individual differences in cognition vary by SES. The current study explored whether relationships between cortical structure and fluid reasoning differ by SES in development. Fluid reasoning, a non-verbal...
#1Rachel R. Romeo (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
#2Joshua Segaran (McGovern Institute for Brain Research)H-Index: 1
Last.John D. E. Gabrieli (Harvard University)H-Index: 117
view all 9 authors...
Neuroscience research has elucidated broad relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and young children9s brain structure, but there is little mechanistic knowledge about specific environmental factors that are associated with specific variation in brain structure. One environmental factor, early language exposure, predicts children9s linguistic and cognitive skills and later academic achievement, but how language exposure relates to neuroanatomy is unknown. By measuring the real-world la...
#1Rachel R. Romeo (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
#2Julia A. Leonard (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 9
Last.John D. E. Gabrieli (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 117
view all 7 authors...
Children’s early language exposure impacts their later linguistic skills, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement, and large disparities in language exposure are associated with family socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is little evidence about the neural mechanisms underlying the relation between language experience and linguistic and cognitive development. Here, language experience was measured from home audio recordings of 36 SES-diverse 4- to 6-year-old children. During a story...
#1Anne T. Park (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 2
#2Julia A. Leonard (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 9
Last.Allyson P. Mackey (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 9
view all 6 authors...
#1Julia A. Leonard (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 9
#2Yuna Lee (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 1
Last.Laura Schulz (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 26
view all 3 authors...
Persistence, above and beyond IQ, is associated with long-term academic outcomes. To look at the effect of adult models on infants’ persistence, we conducted an experiment in which 15-month-olds were assigned to one of three conditions: an Effort condition in which they saw an adult try repeatedly, using various methods, to achieve each of two different goals; a No Effort condition in which the adult achieved the goals effortlessly; or a Baseline condition. Infants were then given a difficult, n...
#1Amy S. Finn (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 12
#2Jennifer Minas (McGovern Institute for Brain Research)H-Index: 2
Last.John D. E. Gabrieli (Harvard University)H-Index: 117
view all 9 authors...
Working memory (WM) capacity reflects executive functions associated with performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks and education outcomes, including mathematics achievement, and is associated with dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Here we asked if family income is associated with variation in the functional brain organization of WM capacity among adolescents, and whether that variation is associated with performance on a statewide test of academic achievement in mathematics. P...
#1Anna Shusterman (Wesleyan University)H-Index: 10
#2Pierina Cheung (Wesleyan University)H-Index: 3
Last.Ariel Schwartz (BU: Boston University)H-Index: 3
view all 7 authors...
The acquisition of counting is a major milestone for children. A central question is how children’s non-verbal number concepts change as they learn to count. We assessed children’s verbal counting knowledge using the Give-N task and identified children who had acquired the cardinal principle (Cardinal Principle Knowers, or CP-knowers) and those who had not (Subset-Knowers, or SS-knowers). We compared their performance on two tests of nonverbal numerical cognition. We report comparable performanc...
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