Anton E. Lawson
Arizona State University
Cognitive developmentMathematics educationPsychologyPedagogyScience education
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Publications 172
#1Anton E. LawsonH-Index: 43
#1Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
#2Erno S. DanielH-Index: 1
This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propos...
25 CitationsSource
#1Jamie L. Jensen (BYU: Brigham Young University)H-Index: 6
#2Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
This study compared the effectiveness of collaborative group composition and instructional method on reasoning gains and achievement in college biology. Based on initial student reasoning ability (i.e., low, medium, or high), students were assigned to either homogeneous or heterogeneous collaborative groups within either inquiry or didactic instruction. Achievement and reasoning gains were assessed at the end of the semester. Inquiry instruction, as a whole, led to significantly greater gains in...
54 CitationsSource
#1Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
#1Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
Bonner (2005) argued for the existence of two scientific methods, which he referred to as ‘‘method A’’ and ‘‘method B.’’ He described method A as the traditional approach, in which hypotheses guide the generation of predictions and the design of experiments to test them; hypotheses are supported or contradicted by comparing predicted results with observed results. In method B, hypotheses are generated only after collecting experimental data and serve to explain the data. In Bonner's view, recogn...
2 CitationsSource
The research articles published in the Journal of Research in Science Teaching in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science epistemologies develop through three developmental levels. Persons at Level 1 view science as an inductive and descriptive enterprise. Persons at Level 2 view science...
11 CitationsSource
#1Anton E. LawsonH-Index: 43
Part I. The Nature of Science 1. Educational Goals and The Nature of Science Inquiry Exploring Instructional Alternatives The Goals of American Education How Science Is Practiced Testing Hypothesis Using Experiments Basic and Applied Research 2. The Nature of Scientific Theories The Greek Four-Material Theory The "Discovery" of Oxygen Description Versus Explanation: Why Do Objects Fall? Proof and Disproof The Elements of Scientific Discovery How Do Science and Religion Differ? Part II. Student T...
20 Citations
#1Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
Helping students better understand how scientists reason and argue to draw scientific conclusions has long been viewed as a critical component of scientific literacy, thus remains a central goal of science instruction. However, differences of opinion persist regarding the nature of scientific reasoning, argumentation, and discovery. Accordingly, the primary goal of this paper is to employ the inferences of abduction, retroduction, deduction, and induction to introduce a pattern of scientific rea...
60 CitationsSource
#1Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
Allchin (2006) has misinterpreted a classic case of hypothetico-deductive (HD) science in terms of his preferred ‘let’s-gather-some-data-and-see-what-emerges’ view. The misrepresentation concerns the research program of Peter and Rosemary Grant on Darwin’s finches. The present essay argues that the Grants’ research is HD in nature and includes a statement by Peter Grant to that effect.
4 CitationsSource
#1Anton E. Lawson (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 43
Children personally construct explanations of natural phenomena, some of which differ from currently accepted scientific explanations. The replacement of personal explanations with scientific explanations, as well as the development of concrete, formal, and post-formal reasoning patterns, requires self-regulation in which alternative explanations are generated and tested in a hypothetico-predictive fashion. Consequently, inquiry-based science instruction in which students explore nature; encount...
4 CitationsSource