Abstract Objective To identify and summarise 1) appraisal tools and other guides which address conflicts of interest in medical research studies; and 2) top journals with policies on managing conflicts of interest in journal papers. Study Design and Setting Systematic review. We searched bibliographic databases, other sources and websites of 30 top medical journals. Two authors selected documents and extracted data. Results We included 27 appraisal tools. None were designed specifically for addr...
ABSTRACTObjectives:The ESPGHAN 2012 coeliac disease (CD) diagnostic guidelines aimed to guide physicians in accurately diagnosing CD and permit omission of duodenal biopsies in selected cases. Here, an updated and expanded evidence-based guideline is presented.Methods:Literature databases and other
Assessment of risk of bias is regarded as an essential component of a systematic review on the effects of an intervention. The most commonly used tool for randomised trials is the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We updated the tool to respond to developments in understanding how bias arises in randomised trials, and to address user feedback on and limitations of the original tool.
Background The average postponement of the outcome (gain in time to event) has been proposed as a measure to convey the effect of preventive medications. Among its advantages over number needed to treat and relative risk reduction is a better intuitive understanding among lay persons.